议员们提出一项有关通知公众美国选举遭受网络入侵的议案
Lawmakers introduce bill to notify public about election cyberattacks
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2019-12-18 16:03
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New York (CNN)Two House members from Florida have unveiled a bill to force the government to notify the public if voter registration systems are hacked.

纽约(美国有线电视新闻网报道)佛罗里达州的两名众议院议员已经正式颁布法案,要求政府一旦选民登记系统遭到黑客攻击必须告知公众。

The plan is a response to the scarcity of official information about the news that Russian military intelligence hacked two Florida counties' networks in the 2016 presidential election.

2016年总统大选期间,佛罗里达州两县遭受到俄罗斯军事情报部门的网络入侵,这一事件在当时并未发布官方信息。为了改变现状,议员们制定了此项计划。

The bill was unveiled by Democratic Rep Stephanie Murphy and Republican Michael Waltz, who the FBI briefed on the topic last week.

这项法案是由民主党众议员斯蒂芬妮·墨菲和共和党议员迈克尔·瓦尔兹共同提出的,联邦调查局上周对这一问题进行了通报。

Under current federal regulations, the FBI is refusing to publicly identify the two counties that came under cyberattack.

根据目前的联邦法规,联邦调查局拒绝公开遭受网络攻击的两个县的身份。

In the proposed bill, which Murphy and Waltz plan to release next week, voters whose information is potentially accessed by hackers -- as was the case with the residents of the two Florida counties -- would be alerted of an intrusion within 30 days of it happening or 48 hours before an election, whichever comes sooner.

在墨菲和瓦尔兹计划于下周公布的提案中,选民信息可能被黑客获取——就像佛罗里达州两县居民的情况一样,政府人员可能会在入侵事件发生后30天内或选举前48小时(以较早的时间为准)收到警报。

"It is unacceptable that the Russians know which systems were hacked and not the Americans affected," Murphy said in a statement.

墨菲在一份声明中说: “ 俄罗斯人知道哪些系统被黑了,反而美国人自己却不知道,这是不可接受的。”

Last week Florida Gov. Ron DeSantis revealed that two counties in the state had been hacked by Russians in 2016. Last month special counsel Robert Mueller's report on interference in the election said that "at least one" Florida county had been breached.

上周,佛罗里达州州长罗恩·德桑蒂斯(Ron DeSantis)透露,该州有两个县在2016年曾遭到俄罗斯黑客发起的网络攻击。上个月,特别检察官罗伯特·穆勒(Robert Mueller)在关于干预选举的报告中称,佛罗里达州绝不仅仅只有一个县的选举登记系统遭受破坏。

Republican Sen. Marco Rubio, the only Florida senator on the Senate Intelligence Committee at the time, told The New York Times last month the Russians were "in a position" to change voter roll data but did not appear to have acted on it.

共和党参议员马尔科·卢比奥(Marco Rubio)是当时参议院情报委员会中唯一来自佛罗里达州的参议员,他上个月告诉《纽约/时报》,俄罗斯人 “ 是有能力 ” 改变选民登记数据库的,但他们似乎没有采取行动。

DeSantis and a group of members of Congress from Florida were briefed by the FBI but the agency would not allow them to disclose the identities of the two counties.

德桑蒂斯和一些来自佛罗里达州的国会议员听取了联邦调查局的简报,但联邦调查局不允许他们透露这两个县的身份。

DeSantis and a group of members of congress from Florida were briefed by the FBI but the agency would not allow them to disclose the identities of the two counties.

德桑蒂斯和一些来自佛罗里达州的国会议员听取了联邦调查局的简要汇报,但联邦调查局不允许他们透露这两个县的身份。

The FBI has defended its decision not to name the counties, saying guidelines prevent it from naming a victim of a cyberattack and that it has a responsibility to handle classified information carefully.

美国联邦调查局(FBI)解释其之所以决定不公布这些县的名字,是因为根据指导方针,该局不可公开网络攻击的受害者信息,并要求其谨慎处理机密信息。

The Washington Post reported that a small county in the Florida Panhandle was one of those hacked.

《华盛顿/邮报》(The Washington Post)报道称,佛罗里达州狭地的一个小县城就是黑客攻击的目标之一。

Two US officials told the newspaper that the database of Washington County in Florida, with a population of about 25,000 was hacked.

两名美国官员告诉《纽约/时报》,拥有约2.5万人口的佛罗里达州华盛顿县的数据库遭到了黑客攻击。

Washington County has declined to comment to CNN.

对于CNN的报道,华盛顿县不置可否。

Some Florida county election officials aware that the identities of the counties could theoretically be identified by a process of elimination have refused to answer one way or another.

佛罗里达州的部分县级选举官员意识到,理论上采用排除法就可以确定遭受攻击的对象,但他们拒绝作出任何回复。

"I don't want to start the precedent of throwing that information out there, or having some supervisors being put in a difficult position," Leon County supervisor Mark Earley told CNN. Earley refused to comment on whether Leon County had been hacked.

里昂县监察员马克·埃尔利告诉CNN:“ 我不想开创这样的先例,把这些信息随意地公开出去,或者让一些监察员陷入困境。” 埃尔利拒绝就莱昂县是否遭到黑客攻击发表评论。

"I'm putting myself right now in the position of not being responsive to those questions," he said. "I'm going to try and side with the ones that are going to have to make the tough decisions here."

他说:“ 我目前的态度就是不作任何回应。” “ 我将努力和那些在为难的决策者保持一致立场。”

'You're doing their work for them if you make an announcement'

" 如果你发表声明你就是在为他们服务。"

Administration officials have justified the decision to keep the attacks secret as avoiding panic.

奥巴马政府官员解释说,为了避免恐慌,他们决定不公开网络入侵案的有关信息。

Former government officials said that dealing with the 2016 interference campaign was difficult, as the extent of Russia's involvement was unclear in real time.

前政府官员表示,很难处理这次攸关2016年美国大选的这次外部干预事件,因为俄罗斯的参与程度尚不清楚。

"We knew we had incomplete information, and the picture was changing almost literally day by day," a former senior White House official involved in the 2016 discussions on how to respond to the Russian interference campaign told CNN. "What we didn't want to do is the Russians' job for them and leave the impression that election systems had been hacked when we didn't know that."

“ 我们承认目前获取的信息还不完整,而且形势几乎每天都在变化,” 一名前白宫高级官员告诉CNN,他曾就2016年有关如何回应俄罗斯干预行动参与讨论。“ 我们不愿意为俄罗斯人服务,让他们觉得自己能够神不知鬼不觉地入侵我们的选民系统。”

"That would be a difficult story to have out there and talk about, especially in the middle of the investigations. The decision we needed to focus on was ensuring Americans' confidence in the electoral process, and doing everything we could to shore that up," the official said.

“ 这将是一个难以公开谈论的故事,尤其是在调查期间。我们需要做出决定,确保美国人相信选举能够在不受破坏的情况下正常进行,并竭力支撑这种信心。”

"To the extent that that was some sort of psy-op (psychological operation), you're doing their work for them if you make an announcement that this happened," a former Department of Homeland Security official familiar with the Russian campaign told CNN.

一位熟悉俄罗斯行动的前国土安全部官员告诉CNN:“ 从某种程度上说,那是一种心理行动,如果你宣布此事发生,你就是在为他们做工。”

"People aren't going to go through the discussion. They'll go, 'Oh, my God, the election's getting hacked.' Nothing really came of it. Nothing got changed," the official added.

“人们不会参与讨论。他们会说,‘天啊,选举系统被黑了。 “ 结果并不变化。一切还是原样,” 这位官员补充道。

Efforts to prevent a repeat of 2016

为防止2016年的历史重演所做的努力

Since 2016, some federal agencies have increased their outreach to state and local election officials. The Office of the Director of National Intelligence holds occasional briefings with state election chiefs.

自2016年以来,一些联邦机构与州和地方选举官员的联系得到了加强。美国国家情报总监办公室(Office of The Director of National Intelligence)偶尔会向各州选举负责人传达指示。

The Department of Homeland Security designated election systems as critical infrastructure in 2017 and has petitioned counties to join voluntary cybersecurity and information-sharing services.

美国国土安全部(Department of Homeland Security)在2017年将选举系统指定为关键基础设施,并请求各县加入自愿网络安全和信息共享服务。

"That's not just a bureaucratic paperwork. That heightens the level of support, assistance, engagement, we can provide across these election officials," DHS cybersecurity adviser Matt Masterson told CNN.

“这不仅仅是一份官僚文书。这是我们对于这些选举官员的支持、帮助和参与程度提高的表现,”国土安全部网络安全顾问马特·马斯特森告诉CNN。

"We've literally gone from an environment in which DHS did know who to contact in each one of the states to let them know about activity or threats to their systems to not only having points of contact in all 50 states, but having regular information-sharing across 50 states and 1,400 jurisdictions," Masterson said.

马特·马斯特森称,“ 通过国土安全部,我们已经获悉各个州的联系人信息,以便通知其所处州县的选举系统受到某种活动的干扰或威胁,这一机制不仅在全美50个州都设有联络人,而且会在50个州及1400个司法管辖区定期共享信息。”

The DHS points to Florida as a success story, with all counties but Palm Beach using DHS sensors on their networks, which monitor for threats and share that information with the federal government and other counties. Palm Beach has said it will install the sensors soon.

国土安全部指出,佛罗里达州是一个成功的案例,除了棕榈滩外,该州所有县都已将国土安全部传感器用于其网络系统,旨在监测威胁并与联邦政府和其他县共享信息。棕榈滩公司也表示将很快安装传感器。

But the job is still far from over, as Masterson is still traveling the country to brief local and county election officials about cybersecurity threats and lobby them to use DHS's services. To date, fewer than half of states have agreed to DHS's onsite cybersecurity assessments, and 13 haven't signed up for the agency's cyber-hygiene scans.

但这项工作还远未结束,马斯特森仍在全国各地向地方和县选举官员普及网络安全威胁,并劝服他们使用国土安全部的服务。迄今为止,只有不到一半的州同意国土安全部的现场网络安全评估,13个州还没有签署该机构制定的网络卫生扫描协议。

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