影藏的生活电影和电影总结(2019)|Roger Ebert
A Hidden Life movie review & film summary (2019) | Roger Ebert
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2019-12-20 16:43
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Terrence Malick's “A Hidden Life,” the true story of a World War II conscientious objector, is one of his finest films, and one of his most demanding. It clocks in at nearly three hours, moves in a measured way (you could call the pacing “a stroll"), and requires a level of concentration and openness to philosophical conundrums and random moments that most modern films don't even bother asking for. It also feels like as much of a career summation as Martin Scorsese's “The Irishman,” combining stylistic elements from across Malick's nearly 50-year filmography, somehow channeling both the ghastly humor and rooted in actual scenes (with beginnings and endings) that longtime fans remember from his early classics “Badlands” and “Days of Heaven,” and the whirling, fast-cut, montages-with-voiceover style that he embraced in the latter part of his career. It's one of the year's best and most distinctive movies, though sure to be divisive, even alienating for some viewers, in the manner of nearly all Malick's films to one degree or another.

Terrence Malick的“隐藏的生活”,是一个关于二战时期拒服兵役的真实故事,是他最好的电影之一,也是他最严厉的电影之一,这部电影的拍摄时间接近三个小时,节奏有条不紊(你可以称之为“漫步”),需要一定程度的专注,对随机的哲学难题时刻保持开放状态,而大多数现代电影甚至都不屑于问这些问题。这也想是Martin Scorsese的《爱尔兰人》对其职业生涯的总结,它结合了马利克近50年电影作品的风格元素,以某种方式既传达了可怕的幽默,又根植于他早期经典作品《荒原》和《天堂的日子》中的真实场景(包括开头和结尾),以及他在职业生涯后期所采用的旋转、快速剪辑、蒙太奇式的画外音风格。这是今年最好最独特的电影之一,虽然肯定会引起分歧,甚至会流失掉一些观众,几乎所有马科李的电影在某种程度上都是如此。

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August Diehl stars as Franz Jägerstätter, a modest, real-life hero of a type rarely celebrated on film. He wasn't a politician, a revolutionary firebrand, or even a particularly extroverted or even verbose man. He just had a set of beliefs and stuck with them to the bitter end. Living a life that oddly echoed Herman Mellville's short story “Bartleby, the Scrivener,” this was a soft-spoken Catholic who refused to serve in the German army, swear a loyalty oath to Hitler, or respond in kind when people said “Heil Hitler” to him on the road. As a result, he suffered an escalating series of consequences that were meant to break him but hardened his resolve. 

August Diehl 饰演 Franz Jägerstätter,是一个谦逊的,在生活中真实的英雄,一个很少在电影中出现的类型。它不是政客,不是革命煽动着,甚至不是一个特别外向啰嗦的人。他只有一套信仰,坚持到最后。过着与Herman Mellville的短篇小说《巴特比,书记官》相似的生活,这是一个说话温和的天主教徒,他拒绝在德国军队服兵役,向希特勒宣誓效忠,或者当人们在路上对他说“希特勒万岁”时,他会一同样的方式回应。结果,他承受了一系列不断晋级的后果,这些后果本来是要击垮他的,但却坚定了他的决心。

There was only one way that this story could end, as fascist dictatorships don't take kindly to citizens refusing to do as they're told. Franz Jägerstätter was inspired by Franz Reinisch, a Catholic priest who was executed for refusing to swear allegiance to Hitler, and decided he was willing to go out the same way if it came to that. It came to that. 

这个故事只有一种结局,因为法西斯独裁者不会善待拒绝服从命令的公民。 Franz Jägerstätter受到了Franz Reinisch的启发,雷尼施是一位天主教神父,业务拒绝向希特拉宣誓效忠而被处决,他决定如果事情到了那一步,他也愿意以同样的方式走出去。事情发展到这一步。

The film begins in 1939, with a newsreel montage establishing Hitler's consolidation of power. Franz lives in the small German Alpine village of St. Radegund with his wife Franziska, nicknamed “Fani” (Valerie Pancher), and their younger daughters, eking out a meager living cutting fields, baling hay, and raising livestock. Franz is drafted into the German army but doesn't see combat. When he's called up again—in 1943, at which point he and his wife have children, and Germany has conquered several countries, killed millions, and begun to undertake a campaign of genocide that the German people were either keenly or dimly aware of—Franz decides his conscience won't permit him to serve in combat. He objects to war generally, but this one in particular.

电影开始与1939年,新闻短片蒙太奇,建立希特勒的巩固权力。弗朗茨和他的妻子Franziska,绰号“Fani”,以及他们的小女儿,住在德国阿尔卑斯山区的一个小村庄,圣拉德贡,他们考割草、捆干草和饲养牲畜勉强度日。弗朗茨被征入了德国军队,但没有看到战斗。1943年,他的妻子有了孩子,德国征服了机构国家,杀害了数百万人,并开始发动一场种族灭绝运动,,德国人民敏锐地或模糊地意识到了这一点——弗朗茨下定决心不允许他参加战斗。他一般反对战争,但这次尤其反对。

It's not an easy decision to make, and Malick's film gives us a piercing sense of what it costs him. The effect on Franz's marriage is complex: apparently he was an apolitical person until he met Fani, and became principled and staunch after marrying her. Now she's in the agonizing position of suggesting that Franz not put into action the same values he's proud of having absorbed from her, and that she's proud of having taught him by way of example. If Franz sticks to his guns, to to speak, he'll end up in jail, tortured, maybe dead, depriving her of a husband, their children of a father, and the household of income, and subjecting the remains of their family to public scorn by villagers who worship Hitler like a God, and treat anyone who refuses to idolize him as a heretic that deserves jail or death. 

这不是一个简单的决定,马利克的电影让我们对她的代价有了一个清晰的认识。对弗朗茨的婚姻影响是复杂的:显然他是一个不关心政治的人,知道他遇到了Fani,并在娶了她之后变得有原则和坚定。现在她正处于痛苦的境地,建议弗朗茨不要把他引以为豪的价值观付诸行动,他从身上吸收了这些价值观,他以身作则教导他为荣。如果弗朗茨坚持他的立场,他最终会进监狱,被折磨,甚至死亡,剥夺了他的丈夫,孩子的父亲,以及家庭的收入,让他们的家人搜到村民的嘲笑,村民们把希特勒当成神一样崇拜,把人和拒绝崇拜他的人,当做应该坐牢或死的异教徒。

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The situation is one that a lesser film would milk for easy feelings of moral superiority—it's a nice farmer vs. the Nazis, after all, and who doesn't want to fantasize that they would have been this brave in the same predicament?—but “A Hidden Life” isn't interested in push-button morality. Instead, in the manner of a theologian or philosophy professor, it uses its story as a springboard for questions meant to spark introspection in viewers. Such as: Is it morally acceptable to allow one's spouse and children to suffer by sticking to one's beliefs? Is that what's really best for the family, for society, for the self? Is it even possible to be totally consistent while carrying out noble, defiant acts? Is it a sin to act in self-preservation? Which self-preserving acts are acceptable, and which are defined as cowardice?

在这种情况下,一部较小的电影会利用这种轻松的到的优越感——毕竟,这是一部不错的农民对抗纳粹的电影,谁不想幻想他们在同样的困境中也会这么勇敢呢?——但《隐藏的生活》对按下按钮的到的敢不敢兴趣。相反,以神学家或哲学家教授的方式,它把故事作为引发观众反思的问题的跳板。例如:让自己的配偶和孩子因坚持机子的信仰而遭受痛苦,在这道德上是可以接受的吗?这对家庭,对社会,对自己都是最好的吗?有没有可能在进行高尚,挑衅的行为时,完全保持一致?做自我保存是罪过吗?哪些自我保护行为是可以接受的,哪些被定义为懦弱?

We see other people trying to talk Franz into giving up, and there's often a hint that his willingness to suffer makes them feel guilt about their preference for comfort. When Franz discusses his situation early in the story with the local priest, he's not-too-subtly warned that it's a bad idea to oppose the state, and that most religious leaders support Hitler; the priest seems genuinely concerned about Franz and his family, but there's also a hint of self-excoriation in his troubled face. A long, provocative scene towards the middle of the movie—by which point Franz is in military jail, regularly being humiliated and abused by guards trying to break him—a lawyer asks Franz if it really matters that he's not carrying a rifle and wearing a uniform when he still has to shine German soldiers' shoes and fill up their sandbags. Everywhere Franz turns, he encounters people who agree with him and say they are rooting for him but can't or won't take the additional step of publicly refusing to yield to the the Nazi tide. 

我们看到其他人试图说服弗朗茨放弃,二位经常有迹象表明,他愿意忍受,让他们对自己喜欢的舒适感到内疚。当弗朗茨在故事的开头与当地的牧师讨论他的处境时,他并不是很巧妙的警告说,反对国家是个坏主意,而且大多数宗教领袖都支持希特勒;牧师似乎真的很关心弗朗茨和他的家人,但是他那张苦恼的脸上也有一丝自责的意味。电影中间有一个冗长的,挑衅性的场景——此时弗朗茨正在军事监狱里,经常被试图撬开他的警卫羞辱和虐待——一位律师问弗朗茨,他没有携带步枪,没有穿制服是否真的重要,他还得擦亮德国士兵的鞋子,给他们装沙袋。无论弗朗茨走到哪里,他都会遇到同意他的人,说他们支持他,但不能或不愿意采取额外的步骤,公开拒绝屈服于纳粹的浪潮。

The film's generosity of spirit is so great that it even allows some of the Nazis to experience moments of doubt, even though they're never translated into positive action—as when a judge (the late, great Bruno Ganz, in one of his final roles) invites Franz into his office, questions him about his decisions; thinks hard about them, with an expression that suggests he's disturbed by the thoughts flashing through his own head; and then, after Franz has left the room, sits in his chair and looks at his own gnarled hands on his knees, as if trying to imagine what it would be like to be Franz. 

这不电影的慷慨精神是如此伟大,甚至让一些纳粹分子经历了怀疑的时刻,尽管它们从未转化积极的行动——比如当一位法官(已故的伟大Bruno Ganz,在他最后的角色之一)邀请弗朗茨进入他的办公室,询问他的决定;认真的思考他们,一种表情表明他被闪过他自己头脑的想法所困扰;然后,弗朗茨离开房间后,坐在椅子上,看着他自己膝盖上粗糙的手,好像在试图想象成为弗朗茨会是什么样子。

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That, of course, is the experience of “A Hidden Life,” a film that puts us deep inside of a situation and examines it in human terms, rather than treating it a set of easy prompts for feeling morally superior to some of the vilest people in history. What's important here is not just what happened, but what the hero and his loved ones were feeling while it happened, and the questions they were thinking and arguing about as time marched forward. 

当然,这就是“隐藏的生活”的体验,这部电影将我们置身与一个情景之中,用人性的角度来审视它,而不是把它当作一系列简单的提示,让我们觉得自己比历史上一些最卑劣的人,在道德上更优越。这里重要的不仅仅是发生了什么,还有英雄和他所爱的人在事件发生时的感受,以及随着时间的推移,他们所思考和争论的问题。

What makes this story an epic, beyond the fact of its running time, is the extraordinary attention that the writer-director and his cast and crew pay to the mundane context surrounding the hero's choices. As is always the case in Malick's work, “A Hidden Life” notes the physical details of existence, whether it's the rhythmic movements of scythes cutting grass in a field, the shadows left on walls by sunlight passing through trees, or the way a young sleeping child's legs and feet dangle as her father carries her. In a manner reminiscent of “Days of Heaven,” a great film about labor, Malick repeatedly returns to the ritualized action of work—behind bars or in the village—letting simple tasks play out in longer takes without music (and sometimes without cuts), and giving us a sense of how personal political struggles are integrated into the boring ordinariness of life. 

这个歌故事之所以成为史诗,出了它的运行时间之外,也因为编剧兼导演,以及他的演职人员,对围绕英雄选择的世俗北京给予了极大的关注。和马利克的作品一样,“隐藏的生活”记录了存在的物理细节,无论是镰刀在田野里有节奏的割草,阳光穿过树木留在墙上的阴影,还是一个睡着的小孩的腿和脚在父亲抱着她晃动的样子。马利克以一种让人想起关于劳动的伟大电影《天堂的日子》的方式,反复回到工作的仪式化为——在监狱里或在村子里——让简单的人物在没有音乐(有时甚至没有剪辑)的情况下,让我们感受到个人的政治斗争是如何融入到乏味的生活中的。

There are countless fleeting moments that are heartbreaking because they're so recognizable, and in some cases so odd yet mysteriously and undeniably real, such as the scene where Franz, in military custody, stops at a cafe with two captors and, on his way out, straightens an umbrella propped against the doorway. Moments later, there's a shot from Franz's point-of-view in the backseat of a car, the open window framing one of his escorts doing a weird little dance on the sidewalk—something he probably does all the time whether he's wearing a Nazi uniform or plainclothes. 

有无数短暂的时刻令人心碎,业务它们如此易于辨认,在某些情况下,它们是如此古怪却又神秘而不可否认的真实,比如被军方拘留的弗朗茨在一家咖啡馆听下来,两个劫持者拿着一把雨伞出去。片刻后,弗朗茨的视角出现在一辆车的后座上,开着的窗户映衬这他的一个保镖在人行道上跳着奇怪的舞——不管他是穿着纳粹制服还是便衣,他可能一直在跳这种舞。

Franz Rogowski, the star of "Transit," has a small, wrenching role as Waldlan, a fellow soldier who also becomes a conscientious objector. With an economy that's dazzling, Rogowski and Malick establish the profound gentleness of this man, with his sad, dark eyes and soft voice and an imagination that leads him to monologue on red and and white wine and pose two straw men meant for bayonet practice as if they were Malickian lovers doting on each other in a field. Every minute brings a new revelation, nearly always snuck into a scene sideways or through a back door, its full power registering in hindsight. Not a day has passed since first seeing this film that I haven't thought about the moment when a prisoner who's about to be executed turns to a man standing next to him, indicates the clipboard, paper and pen that he's been given for last words, and asks, "What do I write?"

Franz Rogowski,《交通》中的明星,扮演了一个角色很小的很痛苦的角色 Waldlan,一个同样拒绝服兵役的战友。罗格夫斯基和马利克凭着令人眼花缭乱的经济形势,塑造了这个男人深刻的温柔,他忧郁的黑眼镜,柔和的声音和想象力,引领他走向关于红酒和白酒的独白,摆出两个用来练习刺刀的稻草人姿势,仿佛他们是在田野里互相溺爱的马利基爱好者,每一分钟都会带来新的启示,几乎总是从侧面或后门偷偷溜进场景,事后才发现它的全部威力自从第一次看到这部电影,我没有一天没想过,一个即将被处决的囚犯,转向站在他旁边的一个人,指着他临终一言的写字板,笔和纸,问道“我该写什么?”

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The film also shows regular citizens identifying with government bullies, and getting a thrill from the rush of inflicting terror and physical pain on people who can't fight back. The closest Malick, a New Testament sort of storyteller, comes to outright condemnation is when “A Hidden Life” shows German soldiers (often appallingly young) getting up in Franz's face, insulting and belittling or physically abusing him with a sneering gusto that only appears when a bully knows that his target can't fight back. (“Schindler's List” was also astute about this.) There's an unexpectedly elating quality to the sputtering, red-faced impotence of Nazis screaming at Franz while he's bound up at gunpoint, cursing him and insisting his protests mean nothing. If they mean nothing, why are these men screaming?

这不电影还展示了普通市民对政府恶霸的认同,以及对无力反抗的人施加恐怖和肉体痛苦的冲动所带来的兴奋。最接近马利克,以一个纽约故事的讲述者,直接谴责当“隐藏的生活”显示德国石斌(通常令人毛骨悚然的年轻)站起来在弗朗茨的链,侮辱和贬低或身体虐待他与一个嘲笑的热情,只有当一个恶霸知道他的目标不能反击时才出现。(《辛德勒的名单》对此也很精明)党弗朗茨被枪指着,咒骂他,说他的抗 议毫无意义时,纳粹分子的狂躁,红着脸对他大喊大叫,有一种出乎意料的兴奋。如果他们什么都不是,为什么这些人会尖叫?

The phenomenon of ordinary citizens investing their pride, their sense of self-worth, and (in the case of men) their fantasy of machismo in the person of a single government figure is one that many nations, including the United States, understand all too well. Malick doesn't give interviews, but I don't think we'd need one to understand why he would make release a film like this in 2019, at a time when the United States is being torn apart over the issue of obedient support of an authority figure, and have the dialogue alternate between German and English. But the film is rich enough and sturdy enough to transcend the contemporary one-to-one comparisons that it is sure to invite—and it's not as if we haven't seen this scenario elsewhere, before and after World War II, or that we'll never see it again. The social dynamics presented here are timeless.

普通公民将他们的骄傲,自我价值感,以及(对于男人而言)他们对于一个政府人物的男子气概的幻想,都投入到这一现象当中,这是学多国家,包括美国都非常了解的,他为什么要遭2019年上映一部这样的电影,而此时美国正因为一个权威人物的顺从而四分五裂,对话在德育和英语之间交替。但是这部电影足够丰富,足够坚固,足以超越当代一对一的比较,这一比较肯定会引发——并不是说我们没有在其他地方看到过这种情节,在二战之前和之后,或者我们再也看不到这种情节了,这里呈现的社会动态是永恒的。

And yet, improbably, “A Hidden Life” is a tragic story that doesn't play solely as a tragedy. The misery endured by Franz, Fani and their children is presented as a more extreme version of the pain everyone suffers as the byproduct of life on earth. The rumbling buzz of bombers passing over the village are of a piece with the arrival of the American warships in Malick's "The Thin Red Line" to take Pvt. Witt away from his pacifist paradise and into the war zone, and the English galleons signaling the impending colonization of Powhatan lands in "The New World," and the shots of cops and Pinkertons creeping up on the fugitive heroes of "Badlands" and "Days of Heaven" just as they were able to lose themselves in personal paradise. 

然而,令人难以置信的是“隐藏的生活”是一个悲剧故事,不仅仅是一个悲剧。弗朗茨、法尼和他们的孩子所遭受的痛苦,是地球上的副产品,每个人所遭受的痛苦的极端版本。轰炸机轰鸣着飞过村庄,这一切都与马利克的《细细的红线》中的美国超级舰队的到来有关,他们要把二等兵威特从他的和平主义天堂带到战区,英国的大帆船预示着《新世界》中的波瓦坦地区即将被殖民,警察和平克顿的枪声在《荒原》和《天堂的日子》中的逃亡英雄中俏然出现,就像他们在个人的天堂中迷失了自己一样。

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Did God create suffering, and evil? If so, why? And why do suffering and evil inflict themselves arbitrarily and unequally? Is the test of endurance and faith the point of injustice and pain? If so, is that point a defensible one? Why be moral at all if morality can be neutered by force, and if the powerful are inoculated against consequences that sting rest of us? 

上帝创造了苦难和邪恶吗?如果是这样,为什么?为什么苦难和邪恶会随意而不平等的造成伤害呢?忍耐和信仰的考研是不公正和痛苦的关键吗?如果是这样的话,这个点可以防御吗?如果到的可以被强制割掉,如果有权势的人可以接种疫苗,来抵抗那些刺痛我们的后果,那为什么还要道德呢?

These are the questions. Malick offers no answers. As Fani tells us near the end of this story, all questions will be answered in time. 

这些就是问题。马利克没有提供答案。征入Fani在故事快结束时告诉我们的,所有的问题都会及时得到解答。

So we wait. 

那我们就等着。

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