科学家警告,入侵物种对美国自然生态系统“构成了深刻而直接的威胁” 
Invasive Species ‘Pose Deep and Immediate Threat’ to US Natural Ecosystems, Scientists Warn
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2019-12-08 17:20
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11:17 07.12.2019(updated 11:47 07.12.2019)

11:17 07.12.2019(updated 11:47 07.12.2019)

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Ashley Dayer, lead author of the study said rats, cats, mosquitoes, and even serpents have caused the extinction of other animal species across the country. Authors of the research note that the US National Park Service (NPS) lacks a system-wide approach to address the issue.

该研究的主要作者Ashley Dayer称,老鼠、猫、蚊子甚至蛇已经导致了全国其他动物物种的灭绝。该研究的作者指出,美国国家公园管理局(NPS)缺乏一个全系统的方法来解决这个问题。
 

Invasive species pose a “deep and immediate threat” to natural ecosystems of the United States as parks across the country are struggling to cope with this issue, according to a study published in the journal Biological Invasions.

根据发表在《生物入侵》杂志上的一项研究,入侵物种对美国的自然生态系统构成了“深刻而直接的威胁”,因为美国各地的公园都在努力应对这个问题。
 

The research is a three-year effort by a panel of experts, who were tasked with assessing dangers posed by invasive species. According to the scientific paper, more than half of parks in the United States are struggling with this problem.

这项研究由一个专家小组历时三年的努力完成,他们的任务是评估入侵物种构成的危险。根据这篇科学论文,美国超过一半的公园都在与这个问题作斗争。
 

Scientists say there are 1,409 populations of invasive species living in parks across the country, some 331 species of which can also pose a danger to humans.

科学家们称,在美国各地的公园里生活着1,409种入侵物种,其中约331种也可能对人类构成威胁。
 

"Most concerning is that only 11 percent of these populations are controlled. These species are negatively impacting native wildlife and plant and tree species in the parks, recreational opportunities, and costing millions of dollars to manage", said Ashely Dayer, lead author of the study.

“最令人担忧的是,这些种群中只有11%受到控制。这些物种对当地的野生动物、公园里的植物和树木物种、娱乐机会产生了负面影响,并导致了数百万美元的管理成本,”该研究的主要作者Ashely Dayer说。
 

What are invasive species and what threat do they pose?

什么是入侵物种,它们会造成什么威胁?
 

The US National Wildlife Federation identifies invasive species as any organism – mammal, amphibian, plant, or bacteria - that lives in an ecosystem that is not native to it and poses threat to this ecosystem. In the absence of predators these species quickly multiply and then compete for food with native populations, which in turn leads to extinctions, disruption of food networks, and other detrimental processes.

美国国家野生动物联合会将入侵物种定义为任何有机体——哺乳动物、两栖动物、植物或细菌——它们生活在非原生的生态系统中,并对该生态系统构成威胁。在没有捕食者的情况下,这些物种会迅速繁殖,然后与当地种群争夺食物,这反过来又会导致物种灭绝、食物网络中断和其他有害的过程。

They can be found in different ecosystems – lakes, forests, grasslands, and deserts and even the presence of small species can have devastating effects on wildlife.

它们可以在不同的生态系统中找到——湖泊、森林、草地、沙漠,甚至小物种的存在都会对野生动物产生毁灭性的影响。
 

As to how these species end up in ecosystems that they do not belong to the answer is human activity. For example, when an insect gets into crates or shipping pallets that are then delivered around the world or when animals are released into the wild intentionally or accidentally.

至于这些物种如何最终抵达不属于它们的生态系统,答案是人类活动。例如,昆虫进入板条箱或运输托盘、然后被运送到世界各地,或者动物有意无意地被放到野外。

Mark Schwartz, from the University of California, and one of the authors of the study said the issue is “far, far worse now” than it was twenty years ago, due to increased globalisation that has contributed to the spread of invasive species.

该研究的作者之一、加州大学的Mark Schwartz表示,与20年前相比,这个问题“现在要严重多了”,因为全球化的加剧导致了入侵物种的扩散。
 

Among the worst offenders are rats, feral cats that kill birds and other animals, mosquitoes carrying malaria, hogs and even Burmese pythons that have invaded the Everglades National Park in Florida. The latter are responsible for a 60 percent reduction in the number of birds and mammals in the park over a couple of decades. Authorities have launched a programme, under which volunteers from the public are paid to kill serpents, which can grow to more than 6 metres in length and can weigh almost 100 kilos.

老鼠、猎捕鸟类的野猫、携带疟疾的蚊子、猪、甚至是入侵佛罗里达州大沼泽地国家公园的缅甸蟒蛇都是最危险的物种。后者导致了在几十年间公园里鸟类和哺乳动物的数量减少了60%。当局已经启动了一个项目,雇佣来自公众的志愿者捕杀蛇类,这些蛇可以长到超过6米长、几乎重达100公斤。
 

Collaboration between parks, modern technologies, and help from the public

公园、现代技术和公众协助之间的合作

The study's authors said the issue of invasive species has not been duly addressed by the US National Park Service (NPS) and noted that NPS lacks a system-wide approach and should make the problem its priority. Researchers stress that addressing the issue on a park-by-park basis would be insufficient and called for a collaborative approach between parks that would also include help from the public.

该研究的作者说,美国国家公园管理局(NPS)没有适当地处理入侵物种的问题,并指出NPS缺乏一个全系统的方法,应该把这个问题作为优先事项。研究人员强调,在一个公园一个公园的基础上解决这个问题是不够的,并呼吁一个包括公众协助在内的公园之间的合作方式。
 

Scientists say many parks don't have trained personnel capable of dealing with invasive species so they should share information on solutions, strategies, and expertise in tackling the problem. Using modern technology is one of the ways to detect and prevent invasion, the researchers said.

科学家们说,许多公园没有训练有素的人员来应对入侵物种,所以他们应该分享解决方案、策略和解决问题的专业知识。研究人员说,利用现代技术是探测和防止入侵的方法之一。
 

For example, staff at Yellowstone National Park, are now collecting and testing water samples to see if any invasive species have infiltrated the park.

例如,黄石国家公园的工作人员现在正在收集和测试水样,以确定是否有入侵物种入侵公园。
 

Scientists said educating and working with the public is a key to success. "Without a question, the best possible way to manage invasive animals is to prevent them from invading an ecosystem in the first place”, said David Hallac, superintendent of the National Parks of Eastern North Carolina and a co-author of the report.

科学家们表示,教育和与公众合作是成功的关键。“毫无疑问,管理入侵动物的最好方法就是从一开始就阻止它们入侵生态系统,”北卡罗莱纳东部国家公园负责人、该报告的合著者David Hallac说。
 

This includes pet owners, particularly owners of exotic animals, keeping an eye on their movements and volunteer work on detecting invasive species in parks and then removing them.

这包括让宠物主人、尤其是外来动物的主人看好动物们的活动,以及请志愿者在公园里侦查入侵物种、然后移除它们。

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