比尔·盖茨:父母眼中问题少年。研究人员认为,他长大后的成功是独特个性使然
Researchers say this disagreeable personality trait displayed by Bill Gates as a kid may predict success in adulthood
517字
2019-12-04 17:01
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火星译客

 Around age 11, Bill Gates started to become a problem for his parents.

比尔·盖茨大约11岁时,在他父母心中就是一个问题少年。

As his intellectual capacity grew, so did his argumentativeness. He refused to do the things his mom asked of him, like cleaning his room and showing up on time to dinner, according to The Wall Street Journal.

据《华尔街杂志(The Wall Street Journal)》报导,盖茨随着知识的增长,他能说善辩,很多事情不听妈妈的话,如要他清扫自己房间和按时就餐。

It came to a head one night when Gates was about 12 years old. The "tempestuous" know-it-all got into a "nasty" shouting match with his mother, according to The Journal, and his father threw a glass of water in his face. Soon after, Gates told a counselor: "I'm at war with my parents over who is in control."

在他12岁时候,有一天晚上,终于与父母爆发了一次战斗。华尔街杂志介绍说,这个自以为无所不知的“狂暴少年”与他妈妈激烈争吵起来,满口骂人“脏话”。他父亲在旁,在忍无可忍情况下拿着一杯水浇到他脸上。事后不久,他告诉一位调解人说:“争吵起因是我父母处处想竭力控制我。”

Gates' adolescent behavior might seem like nothing remarkable — many of us went through similar stages of rebelliousness without growing up to be multibillionaires.

比尔·盖茨的少年时代的行为似乎没有特别值得赞许地方。我们多数人都经历过相类似叛逆阶段,但没有成为亿万富翁。

Yet a new study, published in the journal Developmental Psychology and cited by the Association for Psychological Science, suggests that there is in fact a connection between defiance and rule-breaking in adolescence and earning a high income later in life.

但是,美国心理学协会《Association for Psychological Science》认为,少年时代的挑战勇气和敢于冲破清规戒律,事实上与成年后赢得高收入存在一定联系。该新研究报告(new study)发表在《美国发展心理学(Developmental Psychology)》杂志上。

Back in 1968, nearly 3,000 sixth-graders living in Luxembourg took intelligence tests and answered questions about their feelings toward school. Their teachers also filled out questionnaires about the students' behavior. At the time, researchers assessed the students' family background as well.

早在1968年期间,西欧的卢森堡曾对大约有3000名六年级学生进行了几次问卷调查,并进行智力测试,要他们回答诸如在学校念书的感觉。与此同时,他们任教老师也在问卷上对学生个性方面分别作了填写。研究人员对学生家庭背景也做了评估。 

In 2008, researchers revisited this data in order to see which childhood traits predicted career success and income. They were able to get in touch with 745 of the students, who were now about 52 years old.

为探讨少年时代有哪些个性能预示着他们未来的成功和丰厚经济收入,研究人员于2008年重新研究了这些数据,并与原先745名学生取得联系。如今这些人都在52岁左右。

Some of what the researchers found wasn't especially surprising. For example, more studious kids (as rated by teachers and by the kids themselves) went on to land better jobs.

研究人员从这些学生发现,那些(老师评价和学生自己认定的)勤奋学习好学生,从事职业虽较好,但却没有取得特别惊人事迹。

But the researchers were surprised to find one childhood characteristic — beyond IQ, parents' socioeconomic status, and the amount of education the students attained — that predicted higher  income: rule-breaking and defiance of parental authority.

不过,让研究人员感到惊奇的是,少年有一种个性(超越IQ、父母经济社会地位和受到的教育程度)可预测其在成年后能有巨大收入。这种个性就是,有勇气冲破清规戒律和挑战父母权威。

At this point, the reason why rule-breaking preteens go on to become high-earning s /is unclear. The researchers say it's possible that people with rule-breaking tendencies are more inclined to stand up for themselves, which could lead to greater financial success.

至于为什么具有这种个性的少年长大后能挣到更多钱,原因还不很清楚。研究人员说,有种解释是,少年敢于冲破清规戒律说明有自己思考,所以长大后会取得经济上成功。

Meanwhile, other research has yielded similar findings: One study found that agreeable (i.e. nice) //s tend to make less money than disagreeable //s. And Malcolm Gladwell argues in his book "David and Goliath" that entrepreneurs like Apple founder Steve Jobs and IKEA founder Ingvar Kamprad were more successful because they were disagreeable, allowing them to take social risks and decline requests that weren't in their best interests.

与此同时,另一项研究也可取得同样结果。有一项(One study )研究证明,少年时代听话的(乖)小孩比小时候讨人嫌小孩长大后赚钱少。马尔科姆·格拉德韦尔(Malcolm Gladwell)在他著作《大卫与歌利亚(David and Goliath)》中指出,苹果创建人史蒂夫·乔布斯(Steve Jobs)和宜家公司创建人英格瓦·坎普拉德(Ingvar Kamprad)取得的成功,是他们具有敢于持有不附和他人的个性和勇于承担社会风险,保护自己最大利益不让人侵犯。

Of course, this research isn't a reason to encourage your sixth-grader to run wild in school or at home. But if you notice a defiant streak in them, know that it isn't an inherently bad thing. It could help facilitate their success (and maybe even help them become the next Bill Gates) down the road.

当然,研究结果并不是鼓励少年在学校或在家里肆无忌惮地放纵自己。但是,发现小孩对抗家长时,要知道这并非一定是坏东西,反而有可能有助于他在事业道路上取得成功,甚至成为下一个比尔·盖茨。

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