人的出生月份对罹患痴呆症风险有影响
Birth month affects risk of developing dementia later in life
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2019-12-23 09:07
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火星译客

作者:Jo Marchant

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The month of your birth influences your risk of developing dementia. Although the effect is small compared to risk factors such as obesity, it may show how the first few months of life can affect cognitive health for decades to come.

您的出生月份会决定患痴呆症风险。尽管这种风险与肥胖等危险因素相比影响较小。但它表明,生命首先出现月份可能影响以后数十年认知能力的健康水平。

Demographers Gabriele Doblhammer and Thomas Fritze from the University of Rostock, Germany, studied data from the Allgemeine Ortskrankenkasse – Germany's largest public health insurer – for nearly 150,000 people aged 65 and over. After adjusting for age, they found that those born in the three months from December to February had a 7 per cent lower risk of developing dementia than those born in June to August, with the risk for other months falling in between.

德国罗斯托克大学人口学家加布里埃尔·多布哈默(Gabriele Doblhammer)和托马斯·弗里茨(Thomas Fritze)根据德国最大的健康保险公司(AOK)调查数据,研究了65岁以上近15万的健康档案,发现12月至2月份出生老人,比6月至8月出生老人患痴呆症人数低7%;其它月份出生老人患痴呆症处在前二者之间。

There's nothing astrological about the effect, however. Instead, birth month is a marker for environmental conditions such as weather and nutrition, says Gerard van den Berg, an economist at the University of Bristol, UK, who studies the effects of economic circumstances on health.

英国布里斯托尔大学经济学家杰勒德·范登博格(Gerard van den Berg)通过研究经济环境对健康的影响后发现,这并非是什么占卜术或占星术技巧,而是出生月份环境因素,如气候和营养,所造成。

Summer-born babies are younger when they face the respiratory infections of their first winter, for example. And in the past, babies born in spring and summer would have been in late gestation when the supply of fresh fruit and vegetables from the autumn harvest would have largely run out. Pollution from wood fires or coal heating might also have played a role.

例如,夏天出生婴儿首次应对即将来到冬天呼吸疾病感染未免太娇嫩。春夏二季出生婴儿临产前期,市场新鲜水果和蔬菜供应断档,森林火灾和煤炭消耗又造成空气污染;所有这些都会对妈妈腹中宝宝造成伤害。

There's evidence from other studies that such factors can have lifelong effects on metabolism and the immune system, increasing the risk of conditions such as diabetes, obesity and high blood pressure. Doblhammer and Fritze's results show this is true for dementia too.

多项研究证实,这些因素对人的新陈代谢和免疫系统功能会产生终生伤害,增加患上糖尿病、肥胖病和高血压病机率。德国人口学家多布哈默和弗里茨的调查也表明,它同样影响痴呆症患病机率。

Dementia on the rise

不断增加的痴呆症人数

Other early-life shocks such as recession and famine are known to damage later cognitive health, but these tend to have long-lasting effects on people's circumstances and lifestyles. The link to birth month is important, says Doblhammer, because it pinpoints the significance of the first few months of life.

大家知道,生命早期其它冲击(例如衰退和饥荒)会损伤人成长后的认知能力 ,并影响个人命运和生活方式。之所以出生月份重要,正是考虑当时环境对整个人生的伤害。

An estimated 37 million people worldwide suffer from dementia, and that number is expected to double every 20 years, say the researchers. But although you can't change your birth month, as far your individual dementia risk is concerned, “it also matters what you do during the rest of your life”, Doblhammer says.

据估计,全世界约有3700万痴呆症患者,而且这个数字每隔20年翻番。尽管出生日期无法选择,但就个人患有痴呆症风险来说,却应重视晚年生活方式,采取措施加强预防。

The researchers say the study can't tell us anything directly about the mechanisms underlying the correlation between birth month and later dementia risk – but they point to several possibilities. For example, poor nutrition might impact directly on brain development at a critical time.

婴儿出生月份与晚年痴呆症之间患病机理关系,至今未彻底弄清。但发现几种致病因素,如关键时刻营养不良对大脑发育的严重影响等。

It's also known that infections brought on by poor nutrition or experienced very early in life – for instance, in a baby's first full winter – might cause epigenetic changes that affect metabolism and inflammation levels throughout life. This would increase the risk of chronic conditions such as obesity and high blood pressure, which are known to increase the risk of dementia.

同时,营养不良的初生婴儿在生命早期,如度过每一个冬天时,特别易受到疾病感染。这种感染会引起后渐成(epigenetic changes)变化,造成贯穿整个人生的新陈代谢紊乱和多种炎症出现,并可能患上慢性疾病如肥胖和高血压病等。这些因素都会增加痴呆症风险。

Lifestyle changes aimed at lowering dementia risk are often aimed at people in mid or later life. But Doblhammer says tackling the rising incidence of dementia may require early-life interventions too – for example, programmes to improve the nutritional health of young mothers.

为降低痴呆症风险健康生活方式对中老年人甚为重要。但是,道布勒哈默尔(Doblhammer)说,为应对痴呆症上升趋势,应认真考虑早期介入方法,如改善年青妈妈营养保健,选择良好孕育时机。

Tom Russ, a psychiatrist at the Alzheimer Scotland Dementia Research Centre in Edinburgh, UK, agrees. “It is never too early to start thinking about reducing the risk of developing dementia,” he says.

英国爱丁堡老年痴呆症苏格兰痴呆症研究中心的精神病学家汤姆·拉斯Tom Russ)同意这一观点。他说:“从婴儿出生就开始思考降低罹患痴呆症风险决不会太早。”

Image credit: Heath Korvola/Aurora/Getty

图片来源:Heath Korvola / Aurora / Getty

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