《南山歌谣》影评(1958)|罗杰·艾伯特
Ballad of Narayama movie review (1958) | Roger Ebert
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2019-12-04 18:49
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火星译客

 |  Roger EbertMarch 7, 2013   |  

 | 罗杰·艾伯特,2013年3月7日|  

What a space it opens up between its origins in the kabuki style and its subject of starvation in a mountain village! The village enforces a tradition of carrying those who have reached the age of 70 up the side of mountain and abandoning them there to die of exposure.

它在歌舞伎风格的起源和山村里饥饿的主题之间开辟了一个非常大的空间!这个村子有一个传统,村民们会把70岁以上的老人抬上山并扔在山上,让他们暴露在阳光下死去。

"The Ballad of Narayama" is a Japanese film of great beauty and elegant artifice, telling a story of startling cruelty. What a space it opens up between its origins in the kabuki style and its subject of starvation in a mountain village! The village enforces a tradition of carrying those who have reached the age of 70 up the side of mountain and abandoning them there to die of exposure.

《南山歌谣》是一部日本电影,它用美丽和优雅的技巧讲述了一个令人震惊的残酷故事。它在歌舞伎风格的起源和山村里饥饿的主题之间开辟了一个非常大的空间!这个村子有一个传统,村民们会把70岁以上的老人抬上山并扔在山上,让他们暴露在阳光下死去。

Keisuke Kinoshita's 1958 film tells its story with deliberate artifice, using an elaborate set with a path beside a bubbling brook, matte paintings for the backgrounds, mist on dewey evenings, and lighting that drops the backgrounds to black at dramatic moments and then brings up realistic lighting again. Some of its exteriors use black foregrounds and bloody red skies; others use grays and blues. As in kabuki theater, there is a black-clad narrator to tell us what's happening.

Keisuke Kinoshita在1958年的电影中用精心设计的手法讲述了这个故事,在一条潺潺的小溪旁有一条小径,用哑光画作为背景,在杜威夜晚的雾中,灯光在戏剧性的时刻将背景降为黑色,然后再次用灯光点亮现实。它的一些外观使用黑色的前景和血红色的天空;其他一般使用灰色和蓝色。在歌舞伎剧院,有一个黑衣叙述者告诉我们发生了什么。

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This artifice supports a story that contains great emotional charge. Kinuyo Tanaka plays Orin, a 70-year-old widow whose resignation in the face of her traditional fate is in stark contrast with the behavior of her neighbor Mata (Seiji Miyaguchi), who protests violently against his destiny. Their family attitudes are similarly opposed; while Orin's son Tatsuhei (Teiji Takahashi) loves his mother and doesn't have any desire to carry her up the mountainside, Mata's family has already cut off his food, and he wanders the village as a desperate scavenger; Orin invites him in and offers him a bowl of rice, which be gobbles hungrily.

这个技巧帮助展现了一个包含巨大情感负担的故事。田中由纪子饰演的奥林是一位70岁的寡妇,她向自己的传统命运妥协了,她辞职了。这与邻居宫口静二的行为形成鲜明对比,后者强烈反抗自己的命运。他们的家庭态度也同样相反,虽然奥林的儿子Tatsuhei(Taji Takahashi)爱他的母亲,不想把她带上山腰,但宫口静二的家人已经切断了她的食物,她作为一个绝望的拾荒者在村子里游荡;奥林邀请她进来,并给她一碗米饭,她狼吞虎咽地吃了起来。

In contrast with her resignation and her son's reluctance to carry out her sentence, Orin's vile grandson Kesakichi (Danshi Ichikawa) can't wait to be done with the old woman, and begins singing a song mocking the fact that she retains, at 70, all 33 of of her original teeth. This is taken up by the villagers, who materialize as a vindictive chorus, their song implying she kept her teeth because of a deal with demons. Eager to qualify for her doom, Orin bites down hard on a stone and when they see her again her mouth reveals bloody stumps.

与她的辞职和她儿子不愿妥协形成鲜明对比的是,奥林卑鄙的外孙Kesakichi(丹石一川饰)迫不及待地想和老妇人做个了结,开始唱一首歌,嘲讽她70岁时保留了33颗原来的牙齿。这首歌被村民们所接受,他们的歌声中流露出复仇的情绪,暗示她因为与恶魔的交易而将牙齿保留了下来。为了证明自己的厄运,奥林咬下了一块石头,当他们再次见到她时,她的嘴露出了血淋淋的残肢。

This harsh imagery contrasts with the way the film is structured around song and dance. Although presented in the kabuki style, it isn't based on an actual kabuki play but on a novel. Kinoshita is correct, I believe, in presenting his story in this stylized way; his form allows it to become more fable than narrative, and thus more bearable.

这种残酷的形象与电影中歌曲和舞蹈的结构形成了鲜明的对比。虽然以歌舞伎的形式呈现,但它不是根据真实的歌舞伎戏剧,而是根据一部小说改编的。我相信木下是正确的,以这种方式呈现他的故事,他的形式使它更像是寓言而不是叙事,因此也更容易让人接受。

His sets and backdrops reflect he changing seasons with lush beauty: Spring, summer, the red leaves of autumn, then the wintry snows on the slopes of Narayama. On the mountaintop, blackbirds perch on snowy crags as the camera uses lateral moves to sweep across the desolate landscape. Finally depositing his mother in an empty place on the mountain, Tatsuhei greets the snow with relief: She will freeze more quickly. This he can sing only to himself, because the journey up the mountain has three strict rues: (1) you must not talk after starting up Narayama; (2) be sure no one sees you leave in the morning; (3) never look back. His adherence is in contrast with the adventures of the fearful neighbor Mata, who appears soon after bound head and foot, dragged protesting by his son ("Don't do this!").

他的布景和背景映衬出四季更替的葱郁之美:春天、夏天、秋天的红叶,然后是南山山坡上的冬雪。在山顶上,黑鸟栖息在白雪皑皑的峭壁上,相机的横向移动扫过了荒凉的景色。最后,他把母亲放在山上的一个空地方,如释重负地迎接雪:她会更快地冻僵。这首歌他只能唱给自己听,因为上山的旅程有三个很严格的要求:(1)你在进山之后不能说话;(2)早上一定不要让人看见你离开;(3)永远不要回头。他的坚持与邻居玛塔(Mata)的冒险形成了鲜明对比,玛塔在被儿子拖着反抗(“不要这样做!”)后不久就被绑住了头和脚。

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Orin's goodness and resignation are at the center of the story. In particuar, notice her kind welcome for Tama (Yuko Mochizuki), a 40-year-old widow she has decided will be the ideal new wife for her widower son. Known for her ability to catch trout when no one else can, she leads Tama through the forest on a foggy night and reveals a secret place beneath a rock in the brook where a trout is always to be found. This secret was never revealed to her first daughter-in-law. She even wants to die before her first grandchild arrives. She wants to rid the village from a hungry mouth.

奥林的善良和顺从是故事的中心。特别值得注意的是,她对塔玛(Yuko Mochizuki)表示了亲切的欢迎,她已经决定40岁的寡妇将是她鳏夫儿子理想的新妻子。她以能在别人无法捕捉到鳟鱼而闻名,在一个雾蒙蒙的夜晚,她带领塔玛穿过森林,在小溪的一块岩石下发现了一个总是能找到鳟鱼的秘密地方。这个秘密从未透露给她的第一个儿媳。她甚至想在第一个孙子到来之前死去,她想使这个村庄摆脱饥饿的困境。

Some will find Orin's behavior strange. So it is. Perhaps, in the years soon after World War Two, she is intended in praise of the Japanese ability to present acceptance in the face of the appalling. You can attach any set of parallels to Kinoshite's parable and make them work, but that seems to fit.

有些人会觉得奥林的行为很奇怪。也许,在二战后不久,她的本意是赞扬日本人在面对骇人听闻的事情时表现出的接受能力。你可以把任何一组类似的故事与木诺史特的寓言联系起来,似乎在这里让它们发挥作用是非常合适的。

Keisuke Kinoshita (1912-1998) is of the same generation as Akira Kurosawa. Saying that ideas sprang quickly into his mind, he moved between periods and genres, and made 42 films in the first 23 years of his career. He was immediately attracted to motion pictures; a film was shot in his home town when he was in high school and he ran away to a studio in Kyoto. His family made him return home, but later dropped its opposition to his career plans. Without a college education, he started humbly as a set photographer, and worked his way up, sending in one screenplay after another to the studio chief.

木下惠介(1912-1998)与黑泽明同属一代。他说,他的灵感来得很快,他在不同的时期和流派之间转换,在他职业生涯的前23年里,他拍了42部电影。他立刻被电影所吸引;他高中时在家乡拍了一部电影,然后来到京都的一个工作室。他的家人让他回家,但后来不再反对他的职业规划。没有受过大学教育的他,一开始只是一名卑微的摄影布景师,但他努力工作,事业发展顺利,把一部又一部的剧本交给了制片厂负责人。

He made dramas, musicals, thrillers, musicals, anything, but he never made another film like "The Ballad of Narayama." In its matter-of-fact juxtaposition of fate and art, it leaves an indelible impression. Tatsuhei's second bride Tama tells him: "When we turn 70, we'll go together up Narayama."

他拍过戏剧、音乐剧、惊悚片、音乐剧,但他从未拍过另一部像《南山歌谣》这样的电影。事实上,它将命运与艺术并置,给人留下了不可磨灭的印象。塔素海的第二任新娘塔玛告诉他:“当我们70岁的时候,我们会一起去南山。”

"The Ballad of Narayama" is a new DVD release in the Criterion Collection. Thanks to Wikipedia for some of the research in this article.

《南山歌谣》是一部新发行的DVD。感谢Wikipedia对本文的一些贡献。

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