俄国科学家发现有着圆锯牙的巨鱼化石
Russian Scientists Discover Fossils of Giant Fish with Buzzsaw Teeth
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2019-12-03 09:52
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火星译客

The fish was first described by Russian scientist Alexander Karpinsky in 1899 who named it Helicoprion bessonowi after Alexander Bessonov who discovered the fossils two years earlier. For many years scientists argued how the fish used its cryptic spiral teeth.

1899年俄国科学家亚力山大·卡宾斯基第一次描述了这种鱼,并将它命名为贝松旋齿鲨。而早两年之前,亚力山大·别索诺夫发现了这种鱼的化石。多年以来科学家们一直在争论这种鱼是怎样使用它那神秘的螺旋状牙齿的。

A team of Russian scientists have uncovered fossils of a giant fish with buzzsaw teeth that is thought to be the ancestor of modern-day chimaeras also kown as ghost sharks or ratfish. Researchers made the discovery this summer in a coal mine in the city of Saratov.

一个俄国科学家团队又发现了有着圆锯牙的巨鱼化石,这种鱼被认为是今天的银鲛也被叫做鬼鲨或鼠鲨的祖先。今年夏季研究人员在萨拉托夫城的一个煤矿坑里有了这个发现。

According to Alexander Ivanov, who led the research, the finding belongs to the members of Helicoprionidae family, commonly known as Helicoprion and dates to 300 million years ago.

据主导研究的亚力山大·伊万诺夫称,发现的这种鱼属于旋齿鲨科家族的成员,也就是人们通常知道的旋齿鲨,可追溯到3亿年前。

Scientists think these creatures, which look like modern-day sharks, reached impressive sizes with the biggest one estimated to be seven and a half metres long. But one feature of the fish left scientists scratching their heads – its buzzsaw teeth with an average size estimated to be 25 centimetres in diameter. First they thought that this whorl of teeth couldn’t fit in the fish’s mouth and was likely to be found in other places. Alexander Karpinsky who first described Helicoprion portrayed it with a spiral of teeth on its upper jaw, while other researchers placed them on the lower jaw, on its back and even on its tail. Researchers also argued how the creature used the buzzsaw teeth to attack and chew its prey, with some scientists suggesting that the jaw was flexible and Helicoprion used it as a whip.

科学家们认为这种看着像今天的鲨鱼的生物有着惊人的尺寸,最大的个体估计有7.5米长。但这种鱼的一个特征令科学家们挠头皮——它那平均直径大约25厘米的圆锯牙。一开始科学家们认为这种牙涡没法适应这种鱼的嘴巴,便倾向于往别的地方生长。首次描述旋齿鲨的亚力山大·卡宾斯基描绘其上颌有着螺旋形的牙齿。不过其他研究者将这种螺旋牙放在它的下颌、背部甚至是尾部。研究者们也在争论这种生物是如何使用它的圆锯牙攻击和咀嚼猎物的。有科学家提出旋齿鲨的颌部很灵活,旋齿鲨将螺旋牙当鞭子用。

In 2013, using state of art scanners, Professor Leif Tapanila, of Idaho State University and his colleagues created a 3D reconstruction of Helicoprion.

2013年,爱荷达州立大学的教授雷夫·塔帕尼拉和他的同事利用最先进的扫描仪重建了旋齿鲨的3D模型。

Meet Helicoprion nevadensis! This cartilaginous fish (more closely related to ratfish than sharks) possessed a fused whorl of teeth that may have been used to cut through the shells of molluscan prey. Their range included northern NV.#SharkWeek 📷Scott Heath (Flickr CC BY-NC 2.0) pic.twitter.com/3tPO2Trbzn

来瞧瞧内华达旋齿鲨!这种软骨鱼(相比于鲨鱼,与鼠鱼更亲近)具有融合的牙涡,可能是用来切开软体猎物的外壳的。它们的分布范围包括北内华达州。

#SharkWeek 📷Scott Heath (Flickr CC BY-NC 2.0) pic.twitter.com/3tPO2Trbzn

— US Fish and Wildlife, Pacific Southwest Region (@USFWS_PSW) July 30, 2019

——美国鱼类和野生动物管理局,西南太平洋分部(@USFWS_PSW) 2019年7月30日

Scientists came to the conclusion that the spiral of teeth grew inside the lower jaw and as the jaw closed the whorl rotated the teeth backwards similar to what a buzzsaw does. Taking into account the fact that the teeth were well preserved, scientists assumed that Helicoprion ate soft-bodied creatures like shrimp or pre-historic squid.

科学家们得出结论,这种螺旋牙长在下颌里,而且下颌像锯齿鸟那样向后旋转牙齿合上牙涡。鉴于这种牙齿保存完好的事实,科学家猜测旋齿鲨以软体动物为食,比如虾类或史前鱿鱼。

Scientists also concluded that the fish is more closely related to chimaeras like ratfish than sharks, although both species have cartilage instead of bones, which is why their fossils do not preserve well.

科学家们也得出结论,较之鲨鱼这种鱼与银鲛科比如鼠鱼亲缘关系更近,尽管这两种鱼类都只有软骨没有骨骼,这也是为什么它们的化石保存不完好。

In Krasnoufimsk, where the Helicoprion was first discovered it became an unofficial paleontological symbol, which earned it a place on a commemorative coin issued in 2014.

克拉斯诺乌菲姆斯克,旋齿鲨第一次被发现的地点,已经成了一个非官方的古生物学标志,让它在2014年颁发的纪念币上拥有了一席之地。

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