燃烧中的婆罗洲:气候炸弹专家称,这是西方国家推波助澜的结果
Borneo is burning: The climate bomb experts say is fueled by the West
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2019-12-02 15:10
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火星译客

By Rebecca Wright, Ivan Watson, Tom Booth and Masrur Jamaluddin, CNN

美国有线电视新闻网记者丽贝卡·赖特、伊凡·沃森、汤姆·布思、马斯鲁尔·贾马鲁丁报道

Kalimantan, Indonesia (CNN) — Deep within the jungles of Indonesian Borneo, illegal fires rage, creating apocalyptic red skies and smoke that has spread as far as Malaysia and Singapore.

据据美国有线电视新闻网报道,非法焚烧行为造成印度尼西亚婆罗洲的丛林深处突发大火,整个地区都笼罩在烟雾之中,当地天空甚至呈现出红色。印尼大火不仅在印尼境内肆虐,其邻国马来西亚、新加坡部分地区也受到大火影响。

People are choking. Animals are dying.

森林大火造成的烟雾不仅令人窒息,就连动物也未能幸免。

This is no ordinary fire. It was lit for you.

这不是一场普通的大火。这是大自然借此向你发出的警告。

Farmers are clearing land the fastest way they know how to cash in on growing demand for palm oil, which is used in half of all supermarket products, from chocolate to shampoo.

农民们正在用他们所知道的最快方式来开垦田地,以便从不断增长的棕榈油需求中获利。从巧克力到洗发水,超市里有一半的商品的制造生产过程都离不开棕榈油。

They’re not only burning the forest, they’re destroying the peatlands that lie beneath it -- the world’s largest natural terrestrial carbon sink.

他们不仅烧毁了森林,还破坏了底层的泥炭物质——世界上最大的天然陆地碳汇。

Experts say the annual infernos have ignited a climate bomb with disastrous consequences for the world in years to come.

专家称,这种每年一度的“人间地狱”给全球气候问题埋下了定时炸弹,并将在未来几年引发可怕的后果。

And the fires will keep burning, they say, until Western consumers say no.

他们说,除非西方国家停止衍生品的消费,否则大火还会继续燃烧。

Firefighters work in tropical heat, breathing toxic air, for as little as $8 a day.

消防员在炎热的热带地区工作,呼吸着有毒的空气,每天的工资却只有8美元。

Some fires are so remote they must travel more than an hour in wooden boats loaded with equipment, then hike several miles through the jungle.

有些火灾地非常偏远,他们必须乘坐装满设备的木船行进一个多小时,然后徒步穿越几英里的丛林才能到达。

At the fire front, they dig makeshift wells and rig up generators to pump water to douse the flames.

在火场,他们挖了临时的水井,安装了发电机来抽水灭火。

“We are fighting here almost two weeks already ... stay in here, sleep in here,” Krisyoyo, leader of a patrol team with the Center for International Sustainable Tropical Peatland (CIMTROP) says, as he hoses down flames. “The fire (is) coming I think from humans,” says Krisyoyo, who like many Indonesians only goes by one name.

国际可持续热带泥炭地中心的巡逻队队长克里斯托一边用水管灭火一边说着,“我们已经在这里与火情战斗了快两个星期了……呆在这里,睡在这里。”他还表示,“我想这场大火的根源归结于人”(他和许多印尼人一样都只有名,没有姓)。

About 9,000 firefighters were deployed to fight the fires on the ground this summer.

今年夏天,约9000名消防员被派往现场灭火。

Credit: Rebecca Wright/CNN

资料来源:CNN记者丽贝卡·赖特报道

Helicopters are bombing them from above.

直升飞机从上空执行轰炸任务以扑灭火势。

CNN boarded a Soviet-designed Mi-8 helicopter for a water-bombing mission near the epicenter of the fires over Central Kalimantan.

CNN记者登上了一架苏联设计的Mi-8直升机,在加里曼丹中部的火灾中心附近执行采水灭火任务。

Ukrainian pilot Ivan Kravchenko hovered his aircraft over the Kahayan River and scooped up 4,000 liters of water in a giant bucket hanging from a hole in the floor of the chopper. It was then dumped on the flames -- a process repeated dozens of times during our flight.

乌克兰飞行员伊万·克拉夫琴科(Ivan Kravchenko)驾驶着飞机在卡哈扬河上空盘旋,从悬挂在直升机底层大洞的大水桶里舀出4000升水,然后将其抛进大火之中——在飞行期间,这个过程重复进行了几十次。

Kravchenko is one of a team of specialist pilots, many of whom have been brought in from Kazakhstan and Ukraine, who fly up to three missions a day.

这个由专业飞行员组成的团队中很多都是从哈萨克斯坦和乌克兰飞过来的,每天最多执行三次飞行任务,克拉夫琴科也是其中一员。

“Whole time dangerous,” says Kravchenko. “Because it’s all flight at low altitude and sometimes in bad visibility, so we need to be very careful.”

“我们一直处于危险之中,”克拉夫琴科说。“因为都是低空飞行,有时能见度很差,所以我们需要非常小心。”

They can never be sure if the fire is out.

他们永远无法确定火是否已经灭了。

Fires smolder deep underground in thick layers of dead plant matter –- peatlands -- and can reignite almost as soon as they’re extinguished.

大火正在慢慢燃烧深埋在地底的泥炭,因为上面覆盖着厚厚的坏死植被,所以火势一旦熄灭就会重新燃起。

“When they start burning, it feels like a losing battle,” says Alpius Patanan, head of the local emergency operations division.

当地紧急行动部门负责人阿尔皮乌斯·帕塔南说:“当火势复燃时,你会感觉之前的一番苦战都是无用功。”

These fires were ignited by humans, but can only be put out by nature.

这些火灾是由人类引起的,但只能由大自然来买单。

“My hope is rain will be coming faster, and rain hard,” Krisyoyo says. “Hopefully our forest (will) still (be) standing, for the future.”

克里斯托说:“我希望大雨来的更快、更猛些。”“希望我们的森林在未来仍然屹立不倒。”

At the peak of the fires in September, the sky turned orange.

在9月大火最严重的时候,天空甚至被染成了橙色。

“It was just like science fiction,” says Dr Kevin Sutrapura from Palangkaraya Hospital, the main hospital in Central Kalimantan.

“这场景就像科幻小说中所描述的一样,”加里曼丹中部地区的帕朗卡拉亚大型医院的凯文·苏特拉普拉医生说。

“It’s always like an orange filter, everything is orange … it was dark here, like 12 o’clock in the afternoon, it feels like 5 p.m.”

“它总是像一个橙色的过滤器,把所有事物都变成了橙色……这里很黑,才下午12点,感觉就像到了下午5点。”

This summer, nearly 920,000 people were treated for acute respiratory problems caused by the fires, according to the Indonesia’s disaster agency.

据印尼灾难机构称,今年夏天,近92万人因火灾引发的急性呼吸系统疾病而住院。

“People were coming, panicking,” says Sutrapura.

“人们惊慌失措地赶来,”苏特拉普拉说。

“We decided to open an oxygen house, where people could start to use oxygen, in there we could screen which ones are the patients who need another type of advanced medical care.”

“我们决定开设一个供氧室,以供人们使用氧气,同时我们也可以筛选哪些患者需要接受另一种先进的医疗护理。”

Many of the people who needed treatment came from small villages.

许多住院病人来自小村庄。

Credit: Rebecca Wright/CNN

资料来源:CNN记者丽贝卡·赖特报道

Palm oil may be exposing many in this developing country of 264 million people to severe health risks.

在这个2.64亿人口的发展中国家,棕榈油可能使许多人面临严重的健康风险。

Yet it’s also bringing wealth.

但它也带来了财富。

“Before I grew palm fruit, I couldn’t afford to often feed chicken to my children,” says Talan, an oil palm farmer from Berau, East Kalimantan. “(Now) I can feed them different foods including chicken. I can also afford to buy appliances like a TV and a refrigerator.”

“在我种植棕榈树之前,我没钱让孩子们让能够经常吃到鸡肉,”来自东加里曼丹贝洛的棕榈油“油农”塔兰说。(现在)我可以给他们买各式各样的食物,包括鸡肉。电视、冰箱等家用电器也不在话下。”

Talan is one of the smallholders that make up around 40% of Indonesia’s palm oil producers.

塔兰是棕榈油产量占全印尼40%以上的耕农之一。

He farms two hectares of land with a total of 400 oil palm trees, which he harvests twice a month.

他总共种植了400棵油棕树,占地两公顷,一个月收成两次。

He says he has quadrupled his monthly earnings to $400, compared to when he farmed rice or rubber a decade ago.

他说,他现在每月净赚400美元,是十年前种植水稻或橡胶所得收入的四倍。

Village chief Surya Emi Susianthi says palm oil has transformed the entire community.

当地村长Surya Emi Susianthi说,棕榈油改变了整个村庄。

“Years ago, many here did not have cars and their children did not go to school because they couldn’t afford to pay school fees,” Susianthi says.

“许多年前,大部分当地村民都没有车,他们的孩子也不上学,因为他们付不起学费,”苏塞安吉说。

“But after growing palm trees, they can buy cars, build good houses and put their children in school.”

“但开垦土地种上棕榈树后,他们就可以靠这笔收入买车、盖房子、送孩子上学了。”

Borneo is home to one of the world’s oldest rainforests.

世界上最古老的雨林之一就位于婆罗洲。

It’s a living, breathing natural history museum filled with 15,000 plants, 420 types of bird and 222 mammals -- many of them unique to Borneo.

这是一个活生生的自然历史博物馆,里面有15000种植物,420种鸟类和222种哺乳动物——其中许多是婆罗洲独有的。

The known inhabitants include pygmy elephants, clouded leopards, sun bears, mouse deer, flying fox bats, pangolins, and most famous of all, the Bornean orangutan.

已知物种包括侏儒象、云豹、太阳熊、鼠鹿、狐蝠、穿山甲,其中最著名的是婆罗洲猩猩。

One of the closest genetic relatives to humans, these great apes share 97% of our DNA.

作为与人类亲缘关系最密切的类人猿之一,这些类人猿与我们97%的DNA相同。

Orangutan even translates to ‘man of the forest’ in Indonesian.

猩猩在印度尼西亚语中甚至有“森林之人”之意。

“Orangutans are incredible animals in many ways, they’re very human-like,” says Mark Harrison, a Co-Director for the Borneo Nature Foundation who studied orangutans for a PhD.

“在很多方面,猩猩都表现出与人类不可思议的相似性,”婆罗洲自然基金会(Borneo Nature Foundation)的联席主任、研究猩猩学的马克·哈里森博士说。

“They have very complicated social lives and they’re really intelligent animals.”

“它们经历的社会生活非常复杂,其智力水平也非常之高。”

But these precious mammals are now one of the most critically endangered species on the planet.

但这些珍贵的哺乳动物现在是地球上最濒危的物种之一。

Sources: Orangutan distribution: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-2. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded Nov. 19, 2019. Deforestation: University of Maryland, Google, USGS and NASA analysis of satellite imagery; Global Forest Watch

资料来源:猩猩分布:2019年2月编制的《世界自然保护联盟濒危物种红色名录》,同年11月19日于链接:www.iucnredlist.org.下载。

森林砍伐:马里兰大学在谷歌“全球森林监察”辅助下完成的美国地质勘探局和美国宇航局卫星图像分析

Popi arrived at the Center for Orangutan Protection (COP) when she was a few weeks old.

在几周大的时候,波普来到了猩猩保护中心。

The charity, in Berau, East Kalimantan, is Indonesia’s only orangutan rehabilitation center founded and run by local staff.

这家慈善机构位于东加里曼丹的贝洛,是印尼唯一一家由当地员工创办和经营的猩猩康复中心。

Many of the rescued animals are victims of deforestation, including Popi.

许多获救的动物都是森林砍伐的受害者,包括波普在内。

“Popi is too lazy today. She just wants to play with the human,” release handler Nursanti says, as she nudges the baby orangutan up a tree trunk in the forest.

“波普今天太懒了。她只是想和人类玩,”饲养员Nursanti说着,一边试图让小猩猩跳到森林里的树干上。

Almost every day, the staff escort the orangutans into the jungle for what they term “forest school,” so they can learn how to climb trees, find food and make nests.

工作人员几乎每天都要护送猩猩们进入丛林,进入他们所称的“森林学校”,让它们在这里学习如何爬树、寻找食物和筑巢。

The aim is for successful pupils to graduate to “college” -- COP’s orangutan island on the nearby Kelay River.

他们的目标是让猩猩们成功从“森林学校”毕业进入“大学”——位于附近的克莱河上的科普特红毛猩猩岛。

Credit: Rebecca Wright/CNN

资料来源:CNN记者丽贝卡·赖特报道

There, they are left alone, but regularly fed and monitored, and if they adapt well, they will eventually be released into the wild.

在那里,除了定期喂养和实时监控,它们一般处于独居状态,如果它们适应得好,最终会被放归野外。

CNN takes a trip to orangutan island on a long, narrow, motorized canoe.

CNN乘坐狭长的机动独木舟前往猩猩岛。

There, we find Michelle, an eight-year-old female who was released onto the island in May. She is not doing well.

在那里,我们找到了米歇尔,是一只8岁的女猩猩,她于今年5月从“森林学校”毕业来到这里,但是她目前有点无法适应岛上的生活。

She lumbers towards our boat when we come near, and appears to want to interact with us. But orangutans don’t like water, so she quickly edges away from the shoreline.

当我们慢慢靠近米歇尔时,她也迈着笨拙的步子走向我们的船,似乎想和我们互动。但是猩猩不喜欢水,所以她很快就从岸边走开了。

Later, we see her swinging in the trees. Her handlers say she usually spends too much time on the ground for an arboreal species, and she relies mostly on them to bring her food.

后来,我们看到她在树上荡秋千。她的饲养员说,对于树栖动物来说,她通常在地面上待的时间太长了,她主要依靠捕捉树栖动物为食。

It’s dangerous for orangutans to be too tame.

对猩猩来说太过温顺会给自己带来危险。

“The predator is not only the animal but also the human,” Nursanti says. “Sometimes we try to make them afraid, then they can survive.”

“捕食者不仅包括动物,人类也难辞其咎,”Nursanti说。“有时我们试图让他们产生恐惧感,以此激发他们的生存斗志。”

"Last year we found an orangutan hit with 130 bullets,” says COP Director Ramadhani, who goes by one name.

警察局长Ramadhani说:“去年我们发现一只猩猩中了130颗子弹。”

The orangutan was found by villagers in East Kutai, in East Kalimantan. It was taken for treatment to the Kutai National Park in nearby Bontang, but died of its injuries.

这只猩猩是由东加里曼丹东库泰的村民发现的。它被带到邦塘附近的库泰国家公园接受治疗,但因伤势过重死亡。

At the local district court, authorities say the four accused in the case were each found guilty and sentenced to seven months in prison and fines of 50 million rupiah (about US$ 3,500). But then the fine was replaced by two months in jail, making a total sentence of nine months each.

地方法院院长称此案的四名被告最终都被判有罪,分别被判处7个月的监禁和5000万卢比(约合3500美元)的罚款。但随后罚款被两个月的监禁所代替,所以总共要服从9个月的监禁。

Credit: Center for Orangutan Protection

资料来源:红毛猩猩保护中心

In Indonesia, it’s illegal to kill orangutans -- punishable by up to five years in prison and a 100 million rupiah fine ($7,100). But Ramadhani says the penalties are too weak to act as a deterrent.

在印度尼西亚,杀害猩猩是违法的,最高可判处5年监禁和1亿卢比(约合7100美元)的罚款。但是拉马德哈尼说,惩罚力度太弱,不足以起到威慑作用。

He says the orangutans’ real enemy is palm oil.

他说猩猩真正的敌人是棕榈油。

“Please no more. Just stop it,” Ramadhani says of the forest-clearing operations. “I think it’s enough palm oil in here.”

“请停止这种“毁林改田”的焚烧行径。只要杜绝这类行为,情况就会不同,”Ramadhani谈到当地开垦林地的行动时说。“我想目前开发的棕榈油已经足够用了。”

“My dream is in 20 years, I bring my daughter, (and) go to the forest,” he says, his eyes welling up with tears. “Real forest where they can eat fruit, they can see the animals, real animals, not in a zoo. I want my daughter to see that.”

“我的梦想是在20年后,我带着我的女儿,去森林,”他说着眼里已经满含泪水。“他们可以在真正的森林里吃水果,可以看到动物,真正的动物,而不是动物园里的饲养动物。我想让我女儿看到这一切。”

A different sort of human threat to the orangutan habitat may also be on the horizon: the planned move of the Indonesian capital, Jakarta -- the fastest-sinking city on earth, due to rising sea levels -- to a largely unsettled part of Borneo in East Kalimantan.

人类对红毛猩猩栖息地造成的另一威胁可能正在抬头:印尼政府计划将首都雅加达迁往东加里曼丹婆罗洲某个大范围内处于不稳定的地区。雅加达目前是海平面上升作用下全球下沉速度最快的城市。

The government says the development will not harm the environment, but campaigners are concerned.

政府说,这项开发工程不会损害环境,但环保人士还是怀有顾虑。

“There needs to be a very clear policy and implementation (on) how to reduce the impact of having that new capital,” says Annisa Rahmawati, a forest campaigner for Greenpeace Indonesia. “There is a potential natural reserve in there, (which) will be destroyed and damaged.”

印尼绿色和平组织的森林活动家Annisa Rahmawati说:“在如何减少新资本带来的影响方面,需要有一项非常明确的政策并将其落到实处。”“在那里可能即将出现又一自然保护区遭受摧毁和破坏的现象。”

Indonesia is in the midst of a modern-day gold rush.

印尼正处于一场现代淘金热之中。

In less than 20 years, the country’s palm oil exports have surged almost 1,500% to $20.7 billion in 2017. It’s now the country’s number one export.

在不到20年的时间里,该国的棕榈油出口飙升了近150%,2017年达到207亿美元。现在它是中国规模最大的出口商品。

Indonesia supplies more than half of the world’s palm oil.

印度尼西亚提供了世界上一半以上的棕榈油。

Each of us is estimated to consume 17 pounds (8 kilograms) of it per year.

据估计,我们每人每年要消耗17磅(8公斤)棕榈油。

Palm oil is used in around half of all products found in supermarkets, including margarine, ice cream, pizza and soap. In parts of Africa and Asia, it is also widely used as a cooking oil.

超市里约一半的产品成分都含有棕榈油,包括人造黄油、冰淇淋、披萨和肥皂等。在非洲和亚洲的部分地区,它也被广泛用作食用油。

Credit: CNN

资料来源:美国有线电视新闻网

Driving through the once pristine landscape of Indonesian Borneo, the devastation wrought by palm oil plantations begins to hit home.

行驶在印度尼西亚婆罗洲曾经的原始地貌上,我看到棕榈油种植园造成的破坏性已然开始蔓延到当地村舍。

For hours, we pass by miles and miles of uniform rows of oil palms, and we’re regularly overtaken by large trucks steaming past piled high with palm fruits, or carrying the crude oil.

在好几个小时里,在我们经过一排排整齐划一的油棕榈树时,常常会有满载着棕榈果或原油的大卡车从我们身边开过。

Palm oil originated in Africa and was brought to Indonesia and Malaysia during the colonial era.

棕榈油起源于非洲,在殖民时期被带到了印度尼西亚和马来西亚。

It has become known as a wonder crop for tropical climates, due to its versatility and high yield compared to other vegetable oils like soy, coconut or sunflower.

由于棕榈油相比于包括大豆,椰子或向日葵在内的其他植物油的多功能性和高产量优势,它已经成为象征热带气候的神奇作物。

Increasingly, palm oil is being used for biofuels, driven by climate policies encouraging the use of planet-friendly alternatives to oil and gas.

由于气候政策鼓励使用对地球无害的石油和天然气替代品,越来越多的棕榈油被用于生物燃料。

But in reality, palm oil biodiesel emits three times more carbon emissions than fossil fuel diesel, when you take into account its other environmental costs, according to the European Federation for Transport and the Environment, citing a 2016 Globiom study.

但实际上,根据欧洲运输与环境联合会(European Federation for Transport and the Environment) 2016年Globiom的一项研究,如果考虑到其他环境成本,棕榈油生物柴油的碳排放量是化石燃料柴油的三倍。

Despite this, many countries use palm oil biodiesel to count towards their targets under the Paris Climate Agreement.

尽管如此,为了实现《巴黎气候协议》所商定的目标,许多国家仍未停止棕榈油生物柴油的使用。

Credit: CNN

资料来源:美国有线电视新闻网

The EU has now started phasing out this type of biofuel, until it becomes more sustainable and does not cause deforestation.

欧盟现在已经开始逐步淘汰这种生物燃料,直到这类资源符合可持续标准并且不会招致森林砍伐。

Indonesia plans to contest this ruling at the World Trade Organization.

印尼计划向世界贸易组织针对这一裁决提出异议。

The size and scale of the palm oil industry, and its impact on public health and the environment, is now causing alarm bells even among industry insiders.

随着棕榈油/行业的规模不断扩大,甚至业内人士已经开始意识到其对公众健康和环境造成的不利影响。

“It’s now way out of our control in Indonesia,” says Tiur Rumondang, Indonesia Country Director for the Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO). “I think it’s because we just let them grow organically, without a very clear plan.”

印尼国家主任Tiur Rumondang在参加可持续棕榈油圆桌会议(RSPO)时发言:“这已经超出了本国的控制范围。”“我认为出现这种情况是因为我们的初衷仅仅是促成该行业的有机增长,并没有形成非常明确的计划。”

The RSPO, a global sustainable certification body, was created in 2004 in response to growing criticism of the palm oil industry.

RSPO是一个全球性的可持续认证机构,成立于2004年,旨在对棕榈油/行业日益激烈的批评声音做出回应。

“Our goal is to transform the market, to make the sustainable palm oil a norm,” Rumondang says.

鲁蒙当说:“我们的目标是改变市场,使可持续棕榈油普遍成为各类相关产品的改型目标。”

Credit: Tom Booth

资料来源:汤姆·布思

The RSPO prohibits its members from starting land clearance fires and from planting on peatlands, and monitors plantations using satellite technology.

RSPO禁止其成员发动垦地救灾和开发泥炭地进行种植的行动,同时使用卫星技术对种植园进行监测。

Currently, the RSPO only represents a fifth of the industry in Indonesia, and often the non-certified companies flout the regulations, Rumondang says.

鲁蒙当说,目前,印尼只有五分之一的行业响应RSPO的倡议,而且通常是未经认证的公司无视这些规定。

Despite the extent of this year’s crisis, there is still no sense of urgency within the industry to make big changes, so the fires are likely to keep happening, she warns.

她警告称,尽管今年危机加重了,但在该行业内部仍然看不到试图进行重大改变的紧迫感,因此持续性的火灾可能无法避免。

The government is sending mixed messages.

政府的态度意味不明。

In September 2018, Indonesian President Joko Widodo, who is known as Jokowi, imposed a moratorium on new palm oil plantations using government land, and established a peatland restoration agency.

2018年9月,印度尼西亚总统佐科威(Joko Widodo)宣布剥夺在政府土地上新建棕榈油种植园的使用权,而且还成立了专门机构,旨在修复泥炭层遭受的破坏。

Yet this summer, in the midst of the forest fires, the government mandated an increase in the use of palm oil blended with diesel to make biofuel for the domestic market, to reduce oil import costs.

然而,在今年夏天发生森林火灾期间,当地政府规定增加棕榈油与柴油的混合使用,为国内市场制造生物燃料,以降低石油进口成本。

Indonesia’s biodiesel production is expected to increase 43% to 8 billion liters in 2019, a USDA report says.

根据美国农业部发布的报告,预计2019年印尼的生物柴油产量将增长43%,达到80亿升。

Despite that, the President says restoration of the forests is a key priority.

尽管如此,总统依然强调其立场不变,恢复森林工作是重中之重。

“Of course, the replanting of forests will be pushed, especially for conserved areas,” he said. “In the next five years, we will focus on this, so that forests in Indonesia can be protected from destruction.”

他说:“当然,此举将会推动居民们在森林重新种植棕榈油的行动,而且种植地会尤其集中在自然保护区。”“未来5年,我们将重点关注这一问题,以便保护印尼的森林不受破坏。”

Two barefoot suspects walk into the room dressed in orange jumpsuits, their faces covered by balaclavas to protect their identity.

两名嫌疑犯,打着赤脚,穿着橙色的连体衣走进牢房,为了不显露身份他们在面部罩上了巴拉克拉法帽。

They are among 228 people arrested in six provinces affected by fire this summer, according to figures from the Indonesian police.

根据印尼警方提供的数据,他们就是今年夏天的印尼六省火灾案中被捕的228名罪犯。

The men are accused of starting fires in the city of Palangkaraya, in Central Kalimantan, and agreed to speak to CNN on condition of anonymity.

这些人涉嫌在加里曼丹中部的帕朗卡拉亚市纵火,并同意匿名接受CNN采访。

One of the men says he was burning grass cuttings near his home and later doused the fire with water, convinced he had put it out.

其中一名男子说,他当时正在他家附近焚烧插枝,但后来用水浇灭了火,他很确信这一点。

Local police say the fire continued to burn deep underground on peatland and three days later, it had wiped out around 10 hectares of land.

当地警方表示,大火仍在泥炭地深处燃烧,三天后,约10公顷土地被烧毁。

“On the outside, on the surface, it’s snuffed out, but underground the ember was still burning,” says Edie Sutaata, Adjunct Police Commissioner with Palangkaraya Police. “It took weeks for the fire to be completely extinguished.”

“从外部表面看,余烬是被扑灭了,但在地下这些余烬仍在燃烧,”帕朗卡拉亚警察局兼职警察专员Edie Sutaata说。“大火几周后才被完全扑灭。”

Credit: Ivan Watson/CNN

资料来源:CNN记者伊万·沃森

The second prisoner said he started a fire to clear some land in order to build a new hut.

第二名囚犯说,他放火是为了开垦田地新建一间棚屋。

“I made a little fire. It immediately spread,” he said, adding that the punishment of 10 years in prison is too harsh for accidental cases.

“我只生了一团小火,然后就很快地自发蔓延开来。”他补充说,处以10年监禁的惩罚对于意外性灾祸来说未免过于严苛。

“I didn’t create that much of a fire,” he says. “It was just so I could build a hut. And it’s on my own land.”

“后来的大火不是我造成的,”他说。“开始生火只是腾出空地给自己建个小屋。而且是在我家的地界上。”

A lack of intent is not a defense, Sutaata says. “If someone through negligence causes a fire that endangers the public, the act is considered a crime.”

“缺乏动机不代表采取了防御措施”Sutaata说,“如果有人因疏忽引发火灾并造成危及公众安全的不良后果,那么这种过失行为就被视为犯罪。”

Better public awareness is needed to prevent small fires such as these being started, he says. Education is also needed on a provincial level to warn people of the risks.

他说,为了防止此类小火灾的发生,公众意识亟待提高。而且,省级政府需要加强风险防范意识的教育。

“Every time we are lax about public education and law enforcement, the people will start burning the forest and the land again,” Hendra Rohmawan, the Grand Commissioner of Central Kalimantan Police says.

“一旦我们在公共教育和执法工作上稍有松懈,当地农民就会再度开始“毁林改田”,”中加里曼丹省警察局长亨德拉·罗马旺(Hendra Rohmawan)说。

Offenders can be fined up to 10 billion rupiah ($700,000) and face up to 10 years in prison.

违反者将被处以高达100亿印尼盾(70万美元)的罚款,面临长达10年的监禁。

“Forest fire is a serious crime,” says Rasio Ridho Sani, Director General of Law Enforcement for Indonesia’s Ministry of Environment and Forestry tells CNN.

印尼环境和林业部执法局长Rasio Ridho Sani告诉CNN说,“在印尼,森林纵火是一种非法行为。”

Credit: Tom Booth

资料来源:汤姆·布思

Sani says the government has multiple ways of targeting companies accused of starting the fires. After the forest fire crisis in 2015, a special taskforce was created to help preserve the forests.

萨尼说,政府对涉嫌纵火的公司采取了多重应对措施。在2015年森林火灾发生后,当地政府就组建了一支特别工作小组负责协助保护森林。

Since then, 21 cases were brought to court, three palm oil companies have had their licenses revoked, and 64 administrative sanctions have been imposed.

自那以后,经由法庭仲裁的相关案件共有21起,3家棕榈油公司被吊销营业执照,实行行政制裁命令64项。

“We hope that our intensive effort in law enforcement, using administration sanctions, civil lawsuits and also criminal law, will create deterrent effects,” Sani says.

萨尼说:“我们希望通过行政制裁、民事诉讼以及刑法等方式集中加强执法力度,从而产生威慑效果。”

The problem is, they aren’t.

问题是,实际情况并非如此。

The courts have ruled on nine of the court cases so far, handing out a total of $250 million in fines. But Sani admits that only one fine has actually been paid.

到目前为止,法院已经对其中的九起案件做出了裁决,罚款总额达2.5亿美元。但萨尼强调,目前只有一笔罚款完全偿清。

“All the companies that were taken to court and had a guilty verdict, they’re not paying the sanctions to government,” says Ratri Kusumohartono from Greenpeace Indonesia. “It accomplishes nothing, it doesn’t give them (a) deterrent effect on why they should stop burning and stop draining peatlands.”

绿色和平组织印尼分部的Ratri Kusumohartono表示:“被告上法庭的任何公司即使最终罪行成立,也并未因违反政府的制裁措施而支付罚金。”“这种方式不会带来任何效果,更不能阻止当地农民在泥炭地上进行持续焚烧和抽水行为。”

“What we need (is) the total change in how to enforce the current laws.”

“我们需要彻底改变现行法律的执行要求。”

A government audit this year found that 81% of palm oil plantations broke regulations, including encroaching on protected areas and failing to meet national sustainability standards.

根据本年度政府审计工作报告发,81%的棕榈油种植园的做法都不合规定,其不当行为主要包括侵占保护区以及所产棕榈油未能达到国家规定的可持续性标准。

“What we need (is) the total change in how to enforce the current laws,” says Rumondang from RSPO.

RSPO的鲁蒙当说:“我们需要彻底改变现行法律的执行要求。”

“If we just do it halfway, we should always expect this forest and land fire in the future. We need to change everything, not only RSPO, but also the local government, not only Indonesia but also other countries.”

“如果我们半途而废,那么森林火灾或陆地火灾永远无法避免。我们需要改变全局,不仅是RSPO,还有当地政府,不仅是印尼,还有其他国家,都需要加入到火灾防护的工作中来。”

The problem of palm oil is not isolated to Indonesia.

棕榈油的过度开发问题并非印度尼西亚所独有。(很多国家或地区)

It comes back to the global companies buying the oil, and the choices of consumers.

不仅全世界有石油需求的公司会受到影响,消费者的购买选择也不例外。

It comes back to you.

最终我们每个人也会受到波及。

New analysis by Greenpeace in its report ‘Burning Down the House’ accuses international companies including Unilever, Mondelez, Nestle and several others of using suppliers linked to thousands of this year’s fires. Some of the suppliers are also under public investigation for starting illegal fires, the report says.

绿色和平组织(Greenpeace)在其新的分析报告《烧毁房屋》(Burning Down the House)中指出联合利华、亿滋、雀巢的供应商涉嫌今年数千起火灾案,并叱责这些国际公司采用这种供应商。报道称,其中有有部分供应商也因非法放火而接受公开调查。

“Companies have created a facade of sustainability, but the reality is that they source from the very worst offenders across the board,” says Annisa Rahmawati, a forest campaigner from Greenpeace Indonesia. “The companies responsible for the fires and those who financially benefit from them should be held accountable for these environmental atrocities and the devastating health impacts caused by the fires.”

绿色和平组织印度尼西亚分部的森林保护活动家安妮莎·拉赫马瓦蒂说:“这些公司成功营造出维护可持续发展的假象,实际却和最猖狂的违规者进行着资源交易。”“这些公司作为火灾责任方或获利者理应对这些损害环境的暴行和火灾给当地居民的健康带来的不良影响负责。”

US snack maker Mondelez International, which uses palm oil in products such as Oreo cookies and Ritz crackers, requires suppliers to “convert their entire supply chain” to “sustainable practices,” a spokesperson tells CNN.

美国零食生产商亿滋国际(Mondelez International)的发言人告诉CNN,该公司要求其供应商在生产奥利奥(Oreo)饼干和丽兹饼干(Ritz)等包含棕榈油成分的产品时“将整个供应链”转变为“可持续的制作方法”。

“We will take action against verified fire allegations and any producers shown to be part of groups we’ve previously excluded,” the spokesperson says. “These new cases highlight the urgent need for sector-wide monitoring to provide one source of verified data about deforestation by palm oil plantation companies.”

该公司发言人还表示:“我们将对那些坐实纵火罪行以及与所有先前排除范围之内的公司相关的生产商采取行动。”“这些新鲜出炉的案例让我们更加清楚地看到,在各个部门全方位实行监测的迫切需求,以便于提供切实的数据来源披露棕榈油种植公司砍伐森林的事实。”

Nestle, which uses palm oil in Kit Kat bars, is “deeply concerned about the forest fires in Indonesia” and is “strongly opposed to deforestation,” a spokesperson says.

雀巢公司的发言人表示,“我方对森林大火对印尼造成的严重影响深感担忧”,同时“强烈反对这种‘毁林改田’的焚烧行径”。(该公司的奇巧巧克力棒含棕榈油成分)

“We are currently investigating and verifying occurrences of land cleared through burning,” the Nestle spokesperson says. “We will immediately cease sourcing from any supplier found to be linked to any deforestation activity. Ten suppliers have already been removed from the Nestle palm oil supply chain for not complying.”

雀巢发言人表示:“我们目前正在调查和核实通过焚烧方式开垦田地的情况。”“我们将立即停止与所有涉嫌砍伐森林的供应商的合作。已有10家供应商因不违规而被雀巢公司从其棕榈油供应链中移除。”

Credit: Rebecca Wright/CNN

资料来源:CNN记者丽贝卡·赖特报道

Consumer goods giant Unilever -- which uses palm oil products in toiletries such as Dove and Lux soaps -- has been “leading efforts to end deforestation,” a spokesperson says.

日用消费品巨头联合利华的发言人表示,该公司一直在“带头制止森林砍伐”。(该公司的多芬和力士香皂等化妆品含棕榈油成分)

“In relation to previous concerns, we have already suspended sourcing from a number of suppliers mentioned in the report,” the spokesperson says. “We are currently reviewing the full list of companies to understand any possible links to our extended supply chain and, in line with our palm oil policy, will take any appropriate action.”

该发言人还指出,“鉴于先前关注的相关信息,我方已暂停从报告中所提及的多个供应商进行的采购合作。”“为了明确所有公司与我方绿色供应链可能存在的任何联系,我们目前正在全力审查这份名单,并根据我方在棕榈油问题上的规定,并采取相对措施。”

In Indonesia, the dry season and the wait for precious rains is finally coming to an end, but the cost of this summer’s crisis to the environment and the local population is being laid bare. The failure to protect the rainforests known as Asia’s Amazon -- a vital set of lungs for the planet -- could result in one of the world’s most devastating environmental casualties in the quest for profit and human consumption.

尽管印度尼西亚结束了旱季,终于在漫长等待后迎来了珍贵降雨,但今年夏天发生的这场危机对环境和当地居民造成的损失已然暴露无遗。如果这片被誉为“亚洲亚马逊”和重要的“地球之肺”的热带雨林未能得到良好保护,人类对利润的追求和消费行为可能会使其在全球范围内遭受严重的环境破坏。

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