阿拉斯加州无冰
Iceless in Alaska
1188字
2019-12-12 15:13
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火星译客

The progressive loss of sea ice in summer has serious implications for animals and for indigenous people

夏季海洋冰层的逐渐消失对动物和土著人民有着严重的影响

Iceless in Alaska

The locals in Alaska this summer were not shy about talking about their melting mountaintops, or the collapsing salmon industry. As our native Tlingit cabdriver drove us into Juneau, he pointed out a peak in the far distance. “That one, it used to be covered with snow all year,” he explained. Next we passed a salmon fishery, boarded up. “Salmon are dying, water is too hot. Things have been rough for people the past two summers. We have never seen anything like this, not in our lifetime.”

今年夏天,阿拉斯加的当地人毫不掩饰地谈论他们正在融化的山顶,或者正在崩溃的三文鱼产业。当我们土生土长的特林吉特出租车司机开车把我们带到朱诺时,他指向远处的一座山峰,说道:“那个地方,过去一年到头都被雪覆盖着。”接下来,我们路过一个用栅木板栏着的鲑鱼渔场。“因为水温上升,鲑鱼快死了。在过去的两个夏天,人们的生活都很艰难。我们有生之年都没有遇到过这样的事情。“

What locals are noticing, scientists and satellites are reinforcing. Alaska’s sea ice had unprecedented melting this summer, with the National Weather Service reporting there was no sea ice left within 150 miles of Alaskan coastlines. Satellite measurements done by NASA show summer sea ice levels in the Arctic have dropped by approximately 40 percent since the late 1970s. Sea ice—frozen ocean water—forms, grows and melts in the ocean, as compared to icebergs, glaciers and ice shelves that float in the ocean but originate on land. 

当地人注意到的是,科学家和卫星系统正在加强。今年夏天,阿拉斯加的海冰融化空前剧烈,国家气象局报告说,阿拉斯加海岸线150英里范围内没有海冰留下。美国国家航空航天局(NASA)的卫星测量显示,自20世纪70年代末以来,北极夏季海冰覆盖水平下降了约40%。海冰,即冻结的海水,在海洋中形成、生长和融化,相较于冰山、冰川和冰架虽漂浮在海洋中,但起源于陆地。

Loss of sea ice has serious implications for animals and indigenous practices, with native people relying on the sea ice to support their living ecosystem that is dependent on fish and wildlife. Food security has become a major instigator for the planet’s first official climate refugees, with a recent U.N. report estimating two billion people face moderate to severe food insecurity due largely to the warming planet with escalating extreme weather events and shifting weather patterns. Behavioral adaptations are key to survival, and the Inupiat in the far north are by necessity deep into navigating what those adaptations are going to look like.

海冰的消失对动物和土著习俗有严重的影响,当地人依靠海冰来维持他们依赖鱼类和野生动物生存的生态系统。食品安全已经成为地球上第一批官方气候难民的主要煽动因素。据最近的一份联合国报告估计,20亿人面临中到严重的食品不安全,主要原因是地球变暖,极端天气事件不断升级,天气模式不断变化。行为适应是生存的关键,而生活在遥远北方的因纽特人必然会更了解这些行为适应应该是怎样的。

The Arctic summer of 2019 headlined well-above-average temperatures, warmer seas and a historic July heat wave going into the unprecedented 90’s. In terms of records, July was the hottest month ever recorded on planet Earth since 1880, when modern recordkeeping began. In 2017, Cook Inletkeeperpublished projections for nonglacial stream temperatures in different case scenarios for climate change in Alaska, projecting out to 2069. Shockingly, temperatures recorded in 2019 surpassed even the worst-case projections for 50 years in the future.

2019年北极夏季的气温远远高于平均水平,海水变暖,历史性的7月热浪进入了空前的90年代。当现代记录开始时,从记录的数据看,7月是自1880年起地球上有记录以来最热的一个月。2017年,Cook Inletkeeper发布了阿拉斯加气候变化不同情况下非冰川河流温度的预测,该预测持续到2069年。令人震惊的是,2019年的气温甚至超过了未来50年最糟糕的预测。

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