我们从头到尾阅读了共2677页的弹劾调查证词。以下是详细情况。
We read all 2,677 pages of impeachment inquiry testimony released to date. Here's what's clear.
2149字
2019-11-12 00:05
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火星译客

(CNN)To President Donald Trump, the whole flap with Ukraine is over a "perfect" phone call.

就唐纳德•特朗普(Donald Trump)来看,美乌之间的紧张关系不过是一次“完美”的通话。

"It's based on a single phone call of congratulations to the President of Ukraine, which they fraudulently mischaracterized to sound absolutely horrible," Trump said a few weeks ago of his July 25 call with the Ukrainian President cited by a whistleblower complaint.

“'通化门'事件仅仅是一次基于祝贺乌克兰总统(选举获胜)的通电,只是那些人用欺骗性的叙述方式使它成为一场‘十足的灾难’,”特朗普在几周前谈到7月25日与乌克兰总统的电话会谈时说。

But a review of more than 2,600 pages of transcripts released this week from eight witnesses who have testified in the House impeachment inquiry over the past six weeks shows how controversy over Trump's Ukraine policy had been brewing inside the US government for months. It roiled efforts to bolster a key strategic alliance after Trump enlisted his own personal attorney to work outside normal diplomatic channels in an apparent effort to bolster his reelection chances.

但本周公布的一份超过2600页的笔录显示,特朗普政府对乌政策引发的内部争议已经在美国酝酿了数月。这份笔录是过去六周在众议院弹劾调查中作证的八名证人所提供的。为了达到增加连任机会这一昭然若揭的目的,特朗普私人律师的工作甚至超出了正常的外交渠道,进而使得为巩固美乌关键战略联盟所做的努力被完全打乱。

The testimony details how top US officials were alarmed that Trump had outsourced Ukraine policy to his attorney, Rudy Giuliani, who had pushed top Ukraine officials to publicly announce an investigation into the Bidens and to pursue a conspiracy theory that Ukraine interfered in the 2016 elections to help Democrats. Giuliani's efforts, with support from the President, led to the ouster of America's top diplomat in Ukraine, who stood in his way, while enlisting emissaries who have since been indicted.

美国高级官员发表了一份证词,详细描述了特朗普将对乌政策交由其私人律师鲁迪·朱利安尼(Rudy Giuliani)处理的令人震惊的做法。朱利安尼曾敦促乌克兰高级官员调查拜登夫妇与乌克兰的关系,并追查乌克兰干预2016年美国大选以帮助民主党的阴谋论。在朱利安尼的努力和特朗普的支持下,美国驻乌克兰最高外交官因此下台,原因是他妨碍了朱利安尼的工作,而且还招募间谍为其谋事,之后这些间谍也被告上法庭。

Moreover, the testimony shows a President detached from the integral role Ukraine plays in US policy against Russia -- but also animated in his agitation toward Ukraine. And the testimony of at least one witness links Trump to the decision to withhold nearly $400 million in security aid for Ukraine until that country announced it would pursue the investigations into his political rivals.

此外,这份证词显示,奥巴马对乌克兰在美国对俄政策中扮演的不可或缺的角色漠不关心,但美国对乌克兰所采取的的举措使他感到十分不安。美国政府此前声明除非乌克兰宣布继续调查其政治对手,否则将不予提供近4亿美元安全援助,至少一名证人作证该决策与特朗普有脱不开的关系。

Yet, there still remains one unanswered question: Why was the aid delayed by the White House? While there's ample circumstantial evidence pointing the finger at the President's desire to push Ukraine to publicly announce a probe of his political rivals first, the White House has blocked key figures -- like acting chief of staff Mick Mulvaney -- from testifying, and they could shed more light on the decision to withhold the aid.

然而,仍有一个悬而未决的问题:为什么白宫推迟对乌援助?虽然有充足的间接证据指责总统出自个人愿望迫使乌克兰公开宣布调查其政治对手,但白宫已经封锁了代理参谋长米克米克·马尔瓦尼之类的关键人物。因为证词中透露他们对于停止援助的决定有更清楚的了解。

"It actually came as a direction from the Chief of Staff's office," said Fiona Hill, who was a top Russia adviser at the White House.

美国白宫前俄罗斯高级顾问菲奥娜·希尔(Fiona Hill)说,“这实际上是办公厅主任的指示。”

Trump's push for Ukraine to investigate his rivals went beyond a phone call

特朗普敦促乌克兰调查其竞争对手的举措不在电话会谈的范围内。

Trump has continued to rail on Twitter and in public on his phone call with Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky, calling it a "perfect" call. But the Democrats' case now goes far beyond that conversation.

特朗普之后又继续在推特和公共场合与乌克兰总统弗拉基米尔·泽伦斯基(Volodymyr Zelensky)进行通话,他坚称这是一次“完美的”通话。但是在民主党人看来现在的情况已经远远超出了对话范畴。

The officials who have testified explained how the push for Ukraine to investigate the President's political opponents was already underway well before the call occurred and for weeks after the President urged Zelensky to investigate the Bidens.

作证的官员解释说,早在通电之前,特朗普总统就已经要求乌克兰对其政治对手展开调查,而且这是发生在其敦促泽伦斯基调查拜登夫妇几周之后的事情。

Hill, who was the former top White House Russia adviser, and the National Security Council's Ukraine expert, Lt. Col. Alexander Vindman, testified that the Ukrainians were told on July 10 that the White House meeting with Trump they were seeking was conditioned on opening investigations into the President's rivals.

美国白宫前俄罗斯事务顾问的希尔和国家安全委员会(National Security Council)乌克兰问题专家文德曼中校(Lt. Col. Alexander Vindman)作证称,7月10日,乌克兰人被告知,他们寻求与特朗普在白宫会面的条件是对其竞争对手展开调查。

The message to the Ukrainians was delivered by US Ambassador to the European Union Gordon Sondland, the officials testified, who said he was directed to do so by Mulvaney. White House officials raised serious objections to Sondland, calling into question Sondland's own sworn testimony that then-national security adviser John Bolton "never" shared "any misgivings" with him.

这些官员作证称,美国驻欧盟大使戈登•桑德兰(Gordon Sondland)向乌克兰人传达了这一信息。白宫官员对该行为提出了强烈的反对意见,同时对桑德兰的宣誓证词发出质疑,因为他称当时的国家安全顾问约翰·博尔顿与他对于所谓“泄密”一事“从未”抱有“任何疑虑”。

Text messages turned over to House impeachment investigators show how the conversation with the Ukrainians about publicly announcing an investigation continued for several weeks after the July 25 call. The texts show then-US special envoy Kurt Volker and Sondland encouraging Ukraine to include Burisma -- a Ukrainian natural gas company where Hunter Biden sat on the board of directors -- and the 2016 election in the public statement at the request of Giuliani, though the matter was eventually dropped.

根据众议院弹劾调查人员收到的讯息,在7月25日的电话会议之后,他们与乌克兰人就公开宣布展开调查展开了持续数周的对话。文件显示,当时的美国特使库尔特•沃尔克(Kurt Volker)和桑德兰(Sondland)鼓励乌克兰将布里兹马(亨特•拜登曾担任董事的一家乌克兰天然气公司)以及2016年大选列入应朱利安尼(Giuliani)要求发表的公开声明之中,尽管此事最终被搁置了。

But on September 1, after Ukraine had learned that the US had frozen $400 million in security aid, Sondland told lawmakers -- in a revision to his original testimony this week -- that he told Ukrainian officials the aid wouldn't be released without the investigations.

但在9月1日,在乌克兰得知美国冻结了4亿美元的安全援助后,桑德兰对议员们说他已经告知乌克兰官员如果乌克兰不展开调查,美方不会发放援助。

Bill Taylor, the top US diplomat in Ukraine, testified Sondland said Trump told him "everything" -- meaning the aid money and a meeting -- was conditioned on Ukraine publicly announcing an investigation.

美国驻乌克兰最高外交官比尔•泰勒(Bill Taylor)在听证会上表示,桑德兰表示,特朗普告诉他的“一切”决定——即援助资金和电话会议——都是以乌克兰公开宣布展开调查为条件的。

But Sondland did not testify that Trump told him that, only that he "presumed" the aid was linked to the investigations. He contended that he couldn't recall precisely how he learned the two were linked.

但桑德兰并没有就特朗普曾告诉他这些决策而出席作证,他表示援助与调查相挂钩只是他的猜想。他辩称,他无法准确回忆起自己是如何得知这两者之间存在关联的。

The power of Trump's personal attorney

特朗普私人律师的权力

Giuliani has tried to make the case that his only role in Ukraine was defending his client -- Trump -- and fending off attacks against him.

朱利安尼试图证明,他在乌克兰的唯一职责就是保护他的客户——特朗普——并抵御针对他的攻击。

But that's not what senior US officials were told -- or how the Ukrainians viewed him. Time and again, Trump made clear that to deal with Ukraine policy, they'd have to deal with Giuliani first, something that hamstrung their efforts with their key ally, which is battling Russian aggression and desperately needed US help.

但美国高级官员并不了解这一点,而且这也不会影响是乌克兰人对他的看法。特朗普一次又一次明确表示,要处理乌克兰政策,他们必须先处理朱利安尼的问题,因为这对阻碍了美乌达成关键盟友的进程,而且后者由于正忙于应付俄罗斯的侵略,迫切需要美国的帮助。

It also caused serious concerns among top diplomats as Giuliani was pushing for Ukraine to announce investigations that could help the President politically. And after Giuliani successfully helped to drive out US Ambassador to the Ukraine Marie Yovanovitch from the post, multiple efforts to push Secretary of State Mike Pompeo to offer a statement of support on her behalf went unanswered.

这也引起了高级外交官们的深刻担忧,因为朱利安尼正在敦促乌克兰宣布实行调查,而这有可能在政治层面对特朗普有利。在朱利安尼成功迫使美国驻乌克兰大使玛丽·约瓦诺维奇(Marie Yovanovitch)下台后,她多次试图发动国务卿迈克·蓬佩奥(Mike Pompeo)代表其发表声明以表支持,但最终并未得到蓬佩奥的回应。

In a conversation between senior State official George Kent, who was in charge of Ukraine policy, and Volker, Kent says Volker made clear to him that they would deal directly with Giuliani "because it was clear that the former mayor had influence on the President in terms of the way the president thought of Ukraine."

在负责乌克兰政策的国家高级官员乔治·肯特与沃尔克的对话中,肯特说沃尔克曾向他明确表示,他们会直接处理朱利亚尼的问题”因为很明显,前市长影响了特朗普对乌克兰的看法。”

To Sondland, Trump was even more blunt: "He just keep saying: 'Talk to Rudy, talk to Rudy.'"

谈到桑兰德时,特朗普甚至更加直言不讳:“他只是不停地说:‘跟鲁迪说话,跟鲁迪说话。’”

Sondland then testified that Giuliani's demands continued to get more "insidious" from May 23 until later when he "became aware that there might be a link between the White House visit and aid to the Ukraine that was being held up when I couldn't get a straight answer as to why the aid was being held up."

然后桑兰德作证说,在朱利亚尼“意识到,白宫之行与援助乌克兰之间可能存在的某种联系后,而援助却被搁置了”,自5月23日起朱利安尼的要求越来越趋于“阴谋化”。于是对乌克兰的援助被推迟了,然而关于推迟援助的原因,我并不知道明确答案。

Vindman testified that the "alternative narrative" pushed by Giuliani "undermined U.S. government efforts to expand cooperation with Ukraine."

温德曼作证说,朱利亚尼主导推动的“另类叙述”阻碍了美国政府与乌克兰展开进一步合作。

And he added that the Ukrainians were confused by Giuliani's role and concerned that "it could be undermining the consensus policy."

他还说,乌克兰人对朱利安尼所担任的角色感到困惑,他们担心“这会破坏美乌之间的共识政策”。

"It wasn't until that call that it became, that he was pulled into kind of an official role," Vindman added, referring to the July call where Trump urged the Ukrainian President to work with Giuliani.

“直到那次通话,他才被冠以某种官方角色,”文特曼补充说,他指的是特朗普在7月的电话会谈中敦促乌克兰总统与朱利安尼进行合作。

Yovanovitch and others described a series of "lies" pushed by Giuliani to smear her reputation and make her appear disloyal to the President, but they also contended there was little that senior State Department officials -- like Pompeo -- were willing to do about his efforts.

在证词中,约瓦诺维奇等人叙述了朱利亚尼为了恶意抹黑自我声誉、让自己看起来对总统不忠而编造的一系列“谎言”,但他们也认为,像庞皮欧这样的国务院高级官员,对于朱利亚尼所做的一切努力并没有采取任何应对措施。

"Did anyone at the State Department try to stop those efforts?" Yovanovitch was asked. She responded: "I don't think so, I don't (think) they felt they could."

“国务院有人试图阻止朱利亚尼这样做吗?”约瓦诺维奇问道。她回答说:“我不这么认为他们从未试图阻止,他们只是觉得能力不够。”

Pompeo "rolled his eyes" when discussing Giuliani and said: "Yes, it's something we have to deal with," according to Sondland's testimony.

根据桑德兰的证词,庞皮欧在讨论朱利安尼时“翻了翻眼睛”,说:“是的,这是我们必须处理的事情。”

Career officials: Trump-Giuliani efforts a major breach of norms

职业官员:特朗普-朱利安尼所做的努力严重违反规范

Michael McKinley, a former senior adviser to Pompeo who has worked for 37 years in the Foreign Service, made clear to House investigators that State Department officials were being used "in a way that certainly didn't fit into any past example we can think of," referring to the efforts to target a political rival through investigations by a foreign country.

前蓬佩奥高级顾问,从事境外服务工作37年的迈克尔·麦金利向众议院调查人员明确表示,总统及其私人律师利用国务院官员的方式“肯定不同于与以往我们能想到的任何前例”(指的是特朗普让其他国家实施调查来锁定政治对手的做法)

He's hardly alone.

无独有偶

Kent was supposed to be in charge of Ukraine policy at the State Department, but he was sidelined. And he was alarmed at what he saw.

肯特本应在国务院负责乌克兰政策,但他被边缘化了。他被眼前的状况吓住了。

"I wrote a note to the file saying that I had concerns that there was an effort to initiate politically motivated prosecutions that were injurious to the rule of law, both in Ukraine and the U.S," Kent testified.

“我在文件中写道,我担心有人出于政治动机提起诉讼,这将有损于乌克兰和美国的法治建设“肯特作证。

Taylor called it an "irregular, informal channel of U.S. policy making with respect to Ukraine," referring to the efforts led by Volker, Sondland, Giuliani and Energy Secretary Rick Perry.

泰勒称这是“美国对乌政策是非常规、脱离正式渠道的”,指的是沃尔克、桑德兰、朱利安尼和能源部长里克·佩里领导所做的不正当努力。

"Although this irregular channel was well connected in Washington, it operated mostly outside of official diplomatic channels," he said.

他表示:“尽管这种非常规渠道与华盛顿有密切联系,但其主要运作模式是脱离官方外交渠道范畴的。”

Trump's obsession with Ukraine

特朗普对乌克兰实行的强迫性措施

The President's suspicion of Ukraine dates back to the 2016 election, due to baseless conspiracy theories that it was Ukraine, not Russia, that interfered in the US election.

特朗普对乌克兰的怀疑态度可以追溯到2016年大选,因为他认为是乌克兰而非俄罗斯参与干涉美国大选,这种毫无根据的阴谋论导致特朗普一直对乌克兰的心存怀疑。

That long-held distrust of Ukraine fueled Trump's view of the conspiracy theories promoted by Giuliani and in conservative media that year, which prompted him to brush off dealing with Ukraine and telling officials to speak with Giuliani about Ukraine.

长期以来对乌克兰的不信任使得特朗普更加坚信当年朱利亚尼和保守派媒体所宣扬的阴谋论,这导致他不愿与乌克兰打交道,而让朱利亚尼与官员们讨论乌克兰问题。

"They are all corrupt, they are all terrible people," Volker recalled Trump saying at a May 23 meeting where they encouraged Trump to set up an Oval Office meeting with Zelensky. "I don't want to spend any time with that."

沃尔克回忆特朗普在5月23日的一次会议上所说的话,“(乌克兰人)他们都是腐败的,他们都是可怕的人。”当时他们还鼓励特朗普与泽伦斯基在椭圆形办公室会面。但特朗普说,“我不想在这上面浪费时间。”

Trump's attitude toward Ukraine contributed to Giuliani's ability to have influence over US policy in Ukraine, because Trump administration officials believed they needed to convince Giuliani to sway the President.

特朗普对乌克兰的态度便利了朱利安尼干涉美国对乌政策,因为特朗普政府官员认为他们需要靠说服朱利安尼以改变总统的看法。

"It started as talk to Rudy," Sondland testified.

“一开始我们是和鲁迪谈话,”桑德兰作证说。

But years before Ukraine was thrust into the public sphere as a scandal threatening the President with impeachment, Trump's views on Ukraine prompted concern inside the Trump administration.

但是,就在乌克兰因威胁弹劾总统的丑闻而被推入公众视野的多年之前,特朗普关于乌克兰问题的看法就已在美国政府内部引起不安情绪。

Trump also seized on the conspiracy that Ukraine, not Russia, interfered in the 2016 election, based on the unproven claim that the Democratic National Committee server was in Ukraine. Trump alluded to the conspiracy theory on the July 25 call with Zelensky: "The server, they say Ukraine has it," he said.

单凭乌克兰拥有民主党全国委员会(Democratic National Committee)服务器这一未经证实的说法,特朗普就坚称乌克兰(而非俄罗斯)盘算着干预2016年大选的阴谋。特朗普在7月25日与泽伦斯基的通话中提到了该阴谋论:泽伦斯基说,“服务器,他们说乌克兰拥有它。”

Hill explained how there was an effort to convince Trump it was a "debunked" conspiracy theory. "We spent a lot of time" with Tom Bossert, Trump's former homeland security adviser, former national security adviser H.R. McMaster and others, Hill said, "trying to refute this one in the first year of the administration."

希尔解释说,有人试图让川普相信这是一个“被揭穿的”阴谋论。希尔说,“我们花了很多时间”与特朗普的前国土安全顾问、前国家安全顾问H.R.麦克马斯特(H.R. McMaster)等人共同“试图在本届政府的第一年驳斥这一说法。”

"Tom and others who were working on cybersecurity laid out to the President the facts about the interference," she said. "I can't say any more than that."

她说:“汤姆和其他从事网络安全工作的人向总统解释了有关乌克兰干预美国大选的真相。”“我只能透露这么多。”

Transcripts undercut GOP defense of Trump

这份笔录削弱了共和党对特朗普的辩护

The release of the transcripts has severely complicated Republicans' defense of Trump. That's because in the private depositions, one witness after another knocked down some of the core arguments that Trump and his allies have been making.

这份证词的公布使得共和党人为特朗普所做的辩护变得极为复杂。这是因为在私下的证词中,一个接一个的证人推翻了特朗普和他的盟友一直以来提出的一些核心论点。

The witnesses have panned Trump's core allegations that Biden corruptly pressured Ukrainian officials to protect his son Hunter, who was on the board of Burisma, and that the US ambassador to Ukraine was part of the so-called "deep state" against Trump. Some of those allegations originated from former Ukrainian Prosecutor General Yuriy Lutsenko, who was described by Volker as "not credible" and by Kent as someone who was out for "revenge."

证人们提出了不同意见,一方面是关于特朗普揭露拜登向乌克兰官员施加腐败压力,以保护他的儿子,在Burisma公司担任董事的亨特的核心指控,另一方面是特朗普将美国驻乌克兰大使纳入其所谓“深度国家”概念的做法。其他一些指控则是针对乌克兰前总检察长尤里·卢岑科(Yuriy Lutsenko)的,沃尔克称卢岑科“不可信”,而肯特则称卢岑科是被“复仇”所吞噬。

The narrative Giuliani had been pushing was essentially a sweeping "campaign of lies," Kurt also said.

库尔特还说,朱利安尼所推动的另类叙事基本上是一场彻头彻尾的“谎言运动”。

So far, the inquiry has uncovered multiple clear examples of the Trump-Ukraine quid pro quo, where a White House invitation and military aid were withheld while Trump's handpicked diplomats pressured Ukraine to announce investigations into his political rivals. It was established in Sondland's testimony and text messages from Volker — who both pressed Ukrainian officials to announce the investigations. Other key players, including Taylor, the top Russia and Europe adviser on the National Security Council Tim Morrison and Vindman, also testified that they understood there was a quid pro quo after listening to Trump's call with Zelensky or discussing the matter with Sondland.

到目前为止,经过调查已经发现足以证明特朗普与乌克兰达成交换条件的众多案例,其中包括白宫对乌克兰发出会晤邀请和不予批准其军事援助,此外特朗普精心挑选了部分外交官向乌克兰施压,要求乌克兰宣布对其政治对手展开调查。桑德兰的证词和沃尔克提供的短信都证实了这一点。这两人都曾敦促乌克兰官员宣布展开调查。包括泰勒、俄罗斯和欧洲国家安全委员会高级顾问蒂姆·莫里森(Tim Morrison)和温德曼(Vindman)在内的其他关键人物也作证称,他们在听过特朗普与泽伦斯基的电话会谈或知晓其曾与桑德兰讨论此事后,发现所谓的交换条件是明显存在的。

If Trump wants to continue claiming "no quid pro quo," Democrats appear to have the goods to prove him wrong. Some congressional Republicans have suggested acknowledging a quid pro quo, but staking out the position that it did not rise to the level of an impeachable offense.

如果特朗普想继续声称“没有交换条件”,民主党人掌握证据似乎足以驳翻其一面之词。一些国会共和党人建议特朗普承认交换条件的事实,但同时需要说明的一点是它远不足以构成弹劾的条件。

Democrats also picked up a rebuttal to Trump's argument that he was only pressing Ukraine to investigate the Bidens because he was sincerely concerned about cleaning up corruption in Ukraine. Kent testified that asking Ukraine to investigate the Bidens "in and of itself is not anti-corruption."

民主党人还反驳了特朗普关于敦促乌克兰调查拜登夫妇源于对乌克兰腐败问题的真切关心的说法。肯特作证说,要求乌克兰调查拜登夫妇“本身与反腐败并无联系”。

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