科学家发现了流行音乐让人感到愉悦的秘密
Scientists discover pop music's secrets to making you feel good
567字
2019-12-07 14:39
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火星译客

(CNN)Have you ever wondered why certain pop songs just make you feel so good?

(CNN)您是否曾经想过为什么某些流行歌曲会给你一种很好的感觉?

Researchers studying the question found that the right combination of uncertainty and surprise is what gives listeners the most pleasure.

研究该问题的研究人员发现,听众最大的乐趣是源于歌曲中不确定性和惊奇性的恰当结合。

The study, published in the journal Current Biology on Thursday, involved an analysis of 80,000 chords in 745 pop songs from the US Billboard "Hot 100" chart between 1958 and 1991.

这项研究发表在周四的《当代生物学》杂志上,分析了1958年至1991年间美国公告牌“Hot 100”排行榜上745首流行歌曲中的8万种和/弦。

The researchers -- from institutes in Germany, Norway, Denmark and the UK -- used a machine-learning model to quantify the level of uncertainty and surprise of these chords, and then asked 39 ad/ult volunteers to rate how pleasurable they found each series of chords.

德国、挪威、丹麦和英国研究机构的研究人员使用机器学习模型来量化这些和/弦的不确定性和惊讶程度,然后让39名ad/ult志愿者对每个和/弦系列的愉悦程度打分。

Each song was stripped of its melody and lyrics so that only chord progressions were left and the results couldn't be skewed by other associations to the songs that listeners might have had.

每首歌都去掉了旋律和歌词,这样就只剩下和/弦,测评的结果也不会因为听众对歌曲的其他联想而有所偏差。

They found two things: that participants derived greater pleasure when they were relatively certain what would happen next but then were surprised by an unexpected chord progression.

研究人员有了两个发现:当参与者相对确定接下来会发生什么时,他们会获得更大的快乐,但随后会被意想不到的和/弦进行吓到。

However, the same number of participants found it pleasant when they were uncertain as to what would follow, and then the subsequent chords were more familiar to them.

然而,也有同样多的参与者认为,当他们不确定接下来会发生什么时,接下来的和/弦对他们来说更熟悉。

"It is fascinating that humans can derive pleasure from a piece of music just by how sounds are ordered over time," Vincent Cheung, the lead researcher on the paper from the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Germany, said in a statement.

德国的马克斯·普朗克人类认知和脑科学研究所的首席研究员文森特·巴布在一份声明中说:“令人着迷的是,人类可以从一段音乐中获得快乐,仅仅是通过声音是如何随着时间的推移而排列的。”

"Songs that we find pleasant are likely those which strike a good balance between knowing what is going to happen next and surprising us with something we did not expect. Understanding how music activates our pleasure system in the brain could explain why listening to music might help us feel better when we are feeling blue."

“一些歌曲,听众知道歌曲的下一段旋律,一些歌曲听众无法料到接下来的旋律却能从中收获惊喜,有一些歌曲在前两者之间找到了平衡,研究员觉得令人愉快的歌曲很可能是就是第三类歌曲。。”了解音乐是如何激活我们大脑中的愉悦系统的,这就可以解释为什么听音乐可以帮助我们在情绪低落时感觉更好。”

Cheung told CNN that pleasure in music is linked to expectancy. Previous studies had looked into the effects of surprise on pleasure, but he and his colleagues' study also focused on the uncertainty of listeners' predictions.

巴布告诉CNN记者,音乐的乐趣与期望有关。之前的研究关注的是惊讶对快乐的影响,但他和同事的研究也关注听众预测的不确定性。

Humans are "continuously generating a prediction of what's going to happen next and trying to update these predictions" -- and this is no different when it comes to music, he added.

他补充说,人类“不断地预测接下来会发生什么,并试图更新这些预测”——这与音乐基本是一致的。

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The songs used in the experiments included James Taylor's "Country Roads," UB40's "Red, Red Wine" and The Beatles' "Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da."

实验中使用的歌曲包括詹姆斯·泰勒(James Taylor)的《乡村之路》(Country Roads)、UB40乐队的《红,红酒》(Red, Red Wine)和甲壳虫乐队的《obo - la - di, obo - la - da》(obo - la - di, obo - la - da)。

The findings may help improve artificial musical algorithms and could help composers write music or predict musical trends.

这些发现可能有助于改进人工音乐算法,并有助于作曲家创作音乐或预测音乐趋势。

"The idea is that hopefully as a scientist analyzing these patterns of pleasure in humans, you can somehow work out where music can go next," Peter Harrison, a researcher at Queen Mary University, London, who worked on the project, told CNN.

   伦敦玛丽女王大学的研究员彼得·哈里森参与了这项研究,他告诉CNN:“我们的想法是,希望作为一名科学家,通过分析人类的这些快乐模式,你能以某种方式找出音乐的下一步走向。”

How music can change the way you feel and act

音乐如何改变你的感觉和行为

As part of the same experiment, the researchers also used brain imaging to locate the areas of the brain reflected in musical pleasure.

作为同一实验的一部分,研究人员还使用了大脑成像技术来定位大脑中反映音乐愉悦的区域。

They found the regions involved were the amygdala, the hippocampus and the auditory cortex, which process emotions, learning and memory, and sound, respectively.

研究人员发现,杏仁核、海马体和听觉皮层分别处理情绪、学习、记忆和声音。

Cheung added that another part of the brain, the nucleus accumbens -- which processes reward expectations -- was perhaps responsible for "directing our attention towards the music so that we will try to find out what will happen next."

补充说,大脑的另一部分,处理奖赏预期的伏隔核,可能负责“将我们的注意力引导到音乐上,以便我们尝试找出接下来会发生什么”。

Happy listening!

谢谢聆听!

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