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如何成为一名更优秀的购物者

How to Be a Better Shopper
如何成为一名更优秀的购物者
882字
2019-11-08 09:45
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火星译客

Research from consumer psychology and marketing hints at how to avoid unnecessary spending

来自消费者心理学和市场营销的研究暗示了如何避免不必要的消费。

How to Be a Better Shopper

The other day an e-mail from Old Navy arrived in my in-box with the subject line “Buy one, get one 50 percent off all activewear. Two days only!” I get these sales e-mails from the store almost weekly, and even though I know exactly what the marketers are doing (trying to get me to spend money I wasn't planning to spend), I usually click—and often end up purchasing—anyway. As a mortgage-owing, self-employed mom with two college funds and a retirement account to think about, I have got to become a smarter, better shopper. You, too? Here's how consumer psychology and marketing researchers suggest we start.

前几天,我收到一封来自Old Navy的电子邮件,主题是“购买一件商品,赢得所有运动服五折折扣。仅限两天!“我几乎每周都会收到商店发来的销售电子邮件,尽管我清楚地知道营销人员的目的(试图让我花那些我本不打算花的钱),但我通常还是会点击广告——而且通常会以购买告终。”作为一个欠着按揭贷款、有两笔大学基金和一个退休账户要考虑的自由职业者,我必须成为一个更聪明、更优秀的购物者。你也是这样吗?以下是消费者心理学和市场研究人员建议我们如何开始。

#1 Know that scarcity can sway you—big time. That Old Navy e-mail used a really compelling tactic by highlighting the limited time parameters of the sale—it introduced the idea of scarcity into readers' minds and implied that we could miss out. “Scarcity is very primal,” says Kelly Goldsmith, assistant professor of marketing at the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University. “When people see the world as running out of anything, the research shows it makes them crazy selfish—it starts to explain things like Black Friday violence.” If something's scarce, our minds tell us it is valuable and we need to snap it up. Even if we really, truly don't.

1.知道稀缺性可以在多大程度上动摇你——大多数时间。那封Old Navy商店的电子邮件使用了一个非常有说服力的策略,它强调了销售的限时因素——向读者介绍了稀缺性的概念,并暗示我们可能会错过促销。西北大学凯洛格管理学院市场营销学助理教授凯利·戈德史密斯表示:“稀缺性是非常原始的。”“当人们认为世界上什么都没有了,研究表明这让他们变得疯狂而自私——这开始解释像黑色星期五暴力这样的事情。“如果某样东西是稀缺的,我们的大脑会告诉我们它是有价值的,我们需要抢购它。”即使我们真的不想要。

#2 Prioritize before you shop around. The other week it took me three hours to decide which local hotel to book for an overnight staycation. There were just so many; what if I picked the wrong one and my husband and I ended up having a terrible time? This quandary illustrates one of the biggest problems facing shoppers these days, says Alexander Chernev, a consumer behavior researcher and marketing professor at the Kellogg School: too much choice. “It takes a lot of effort just to consider all the options available—to go out and find them and evaluate each one,” Chernev notes. He points out you don't have to consider all the options, especially if you start with a good sense of your priorities: “You always have to give up one thing for another. Do you prefer better coverage or lower price in health care? In buying a car, do you prefer performance, or comfort, or fuel efficiency?” If you figure out what's most important to you ahead of time and consider only the options that match your priorities, you can keep from foundering in a sea of too many choices.

2.购物前货比三家。在另一个星期,我花了三个小时来决定在当地哪家酒店过夜。只是因为酒店太多了;如果我选错了,我和我丈夫说不定会度过一段糟糕的时光?凯洛格商学院消费者行为研究员、市场营销学教授亚历山大·切尔内夫表示,这种两难境地说明了如今消费者面临的最大问题之一:可选择的太多了。切尔内夫说:“仅仅是考虑所有的选项就需要花费大功夫——去寻找并评估每一个选项。”他指出,你不必考虑所有的选项,尤其是如果你一开始就很清楚自己的优先事项:“你总是不得不为了另一件事放弃一件事。你喜欢更好的医疗保险还是更便宜的医疗保险?在买车时,你更喜欢性能、舒适度还是考虑燃油效率?“如果你提前想好什么对你来说是最重要的,只考虑那些符合你优先级的选项,你就能避免陷入过多选择的深海。

#3 Make a list—even online. Making a shopping list before hitting a store isn't just about remembering necessary items, it can also help you tune out unwanted marketing messages. Studies on goal activation show that if you make a concrete action plan (such as a shopping list), you're more likely to do what it is you actually set out to do. “Imagine your average trip to the grocery store,” Goldsmith says. “We go with good intentions, to get our bread and milk, then we're bombarded by in-aisle displays and coupons that are meant to arouse us or change our minds about what we actually need.” Although carrying a list may seem like a no-brainer when heading to the store, Goldsmith points out that a shopping list can help just as much online, where banner ads and pop-ups try to entice you with complementary products to those in your cart. A shopping list can keep your goal of shopping wisely at the top of your mind amid all these distractions.

3.列个清单——即使是在网购时。去商店之前列一个购物清单不仅仅是记住必须的物品,它还可以帮助你排除不必要的营销信息。关于目标激活的研究表明,如果你制定了一个具体的行动计划(比如购物清单),则更有可能去做你真正想做的事情。“想象一下你去杂货店的大致事件,”戈德史密斯说。“我们怀着美好的目标去买面包和牛奶,然后我们被货架上的商品和优惠券狂轰滥炸,这些商品和优惠券的目的是唤起或改变我们对实际需要的想法。尽管去商店时带着购物清单似乎是件很简单的事,但戈德史密斯指出,网上购物清单也能起到同等的作用,横幅广告和弹出式广告试图用其他产品吸引你。一份购物清单可以让你在所有这些使你分心的事情中保持购物的明智目标。

#4 Try to think longer term. In the moment, it can be tough for shoppers to balance what consumer researchers call “vices and virtues.” A vice is anything that brings immediate gratification but costs you long term, whereas virtues may seem costlier now but are much better for you down the road. “In general, vices tend to prevail,” Chernev says. “If you think about how you're going to experience and enjoy the chocolate bar sold near the cash register, you're more likely to succumb.” One way to further boost your resistance to impulsive vice buys is to remind yourself of what you truly value in life. A series of studies in 2013 by psychologists Brandon Schmeichel of Texas A&M University and Kathleen Vohs of the University of Minnesota found that thinking and writing about your goals and values helped people exert more self-control when they were feeling run down or worn out. The next time I can't sleep and I'm tempted to fire up my Amazon app and buy a bunch of adorable baby clothes (on sale!) in the middle of the night, perhaps I'll grab a pen and paper instead and remind myself of what really matters.

4.试着从长远考虑。目前,消费者很难平衡研究人员所说的“优缺点”。“恶习是任何能带来即时满足但会让你付出长期代价的东西,而美德在现在看起来更昂贵,但在将来对你更有好处。”切尔内夫说:“一般来说,恶习总是占上风。“如果你考虑如何体验和享受收银台附近出售的巧克力棒,你更有可能会屈服。”“进一步增强你对冲动购物的抵抗力的一个方法是提醒自己生活中你真正看重的是什么。2013年,德克萨斯农工大学的心理学家布兰登·舒梅切尔和明尼苏达大学的凯瑟琳·沃斯进行了一系列研究,发现思考并写下自己的目标和价值观有助于人们在感到心情低落或疲惫时更好地自我控制。下次我睡不着的时候,我想打开我的亚马逊应用程序,在半夜买一堆可爱的婴儿衣服(打折!),也许我会拿一支笔和一张纸,提醒自己什么才是真正重要的。

This article was originally published with the title "How to Be a Better shopper" in SA Mind 26, 1, 14 (January 2015)

本文最初发表于2015年1月的《如何做一个更优秀的购物者》,SA Mind 26, 1, 14。

ABOUT THE AUTHOR(S)

关于作者

Sunny Sea Gold is a health and psychology writer, the "How to Do Anything Better" columnist for Scientific American Mind, and the author of Food: The Good Girl's Drug (Berkley Books, 2011).

Sunny Sea Gold是一位健康和心理学作家,《如何做得更好》的科学美国人心智专栏作家,《食物:好女孩的药》(柏克利出版公司, 2011)的作者。

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