天堂岛的再次降临
The second coming of a paradise island
2282字
2019-11-02 21:45
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火星译客

(CNN) — It has mile after mile of powder sand beaches lapped by clear, warm surf. It has beautiful unspoiled jungles.

(CNN)——这里方圆好几英里都遍布粉状沙滩,清澈温暖的海浪拍打着海岸。它还拥有未受破坏的美丽丛林。

It has incredible food, UNESCO-rated historical sites and diving resorts, charming railways, hiking, safaris and relaxation.

它有令人难以置信的美食,被联合国教科文组织评为历史景点和享受潜水,迷人的铁路风光,徒步旅行,狩猎和放松的胜地。

It was even named the top country to visit in 2019 by Lonely Planet.

它甚至被《孤独星球》评为2019年最值得一去的国家。

In other words, it's paradise. But for much of the past six months, these idyllic spots have stood empty of all but a few visitors.

换句话说,这里就是天堂。但在过去6个月的大部分时间里,除了少数游客外,这些田园诗般的景点空无一人。

The place is Sri Lanka, the South Asian island nation off the southeastern tip of India, lapped by the warm waters of the Indian Ocean.

这个地方就是斯里兰卡,这个位于印度东南端的南亚岛国,被印度洋的温暖海水所覆盖。

And the reason why no one was visiting? A series of terrorist attacks targeting churches and luxury hotels in its capital city Colombo that left 250 people dead in April of this year.

为什么没有人来参观呢?今年4月,斯里兰卡首都科伦坡发生了一系列针对教堂和豪华酒店的恐怖袭击,造成250人死亡。

The attack brought a thriving travel industry -- some 2.33 million annual visitors last year -- instantly to its knees as safety fears underscored by official travel warnings drove many people to cancel trips and stay away.

这起袭击事件令旅游业迅速陷入瘫痪,去年全年游客仅约233万人次。当局发布的官方旅行警告中所强调的安全隐忧使得许多人取消旅行,远离此地。

But, against strong odds -- exacerbated by the fact Sri Lanka had just a decade earlier emerged from a bloody 26-year civil war between government forces and Tamil Tiger rebels in the island's north -- the country has begun to reestablish itself as a prime destination.

然而,尽管斯里兰卡重新确立其首要旅行目的地地位的可能性很大。但就在10年前,斯里兰卡刚刚结束了政府军与该国北部泰米尔猛虎组织(Tamil Tiger)叛军之间长达26年的血腥内战,这一事实加剧了局势的恶化。

State of emergency

进入紧急状态

Sri Lanka tourism images

After the Easter Bombings, visitor numbers in Sri Lanka declined by around 70%.

在复活节发生斯里兰卡连环爆炸案后,斯里兰卡的游客数量下降了约70%。

Courtesy Sri Lanka Tourism

斯里兰卡旅游图片

A paradise lost seems to have been born again.

该地似乎已经开始夺回其失去的“天堂岛”之称。

And while this is clearly good news for Sri Lanka, and for those looking to vacation there in the months to come, it's also a valuable case study for the travel industry in how a destination rebounds from adversity. It also sheds light on changing attitudes among tourists to places that have been blighted by violence.

虽然这对斯里兰卡和那些打算在未来几个月去那里度假的人来说显然是个好消息,但这对旅游业来说也是极具参考价值的案例,因为这可以用来研究一个旅行目的地如何从逆境中恢复过来。它也揭示了游客对那些被暴力破坏的地方态度的转变。

For Sri Lanka, immediately after the attacks things looked bleak. Already reeling from the loss of lives, the island was also forced to face the brutal financial consequences.

对斯里兰卡来说,袭击发生后,情况立即变得暗淡。已经遭受生命损失的该岛也被迫面对残酷的财政后果。

Bookings were canceled. Flights were pulled. Hotels shut down. Tour guides, souvenir sellers, drivers -- pretty much anyone whose livelihood depended on tourism -- saw their income vanish overnight.

预订被取消。航班取消了。酒店关闭。导游、纪念品销售者、司机——几乎所有以旅游业为生的人——的收入来源一夜之间消失了。

Tourism is Sri Lanka's third largest foreign exchange earner, bringing around $4.4 billion annually. An estimated half a million Sri Lankans depend on tourism directly, while two million rely on it indirectly.

旅游业是斯里兰卡第三大外汇收入来源,每年带来约44亿美元的收入。据估计,有50万斯里兰卡人直接依赖旅游业为生,200万人间接依赖旅游业为生。

So the impact was devastating.

所以这一恐怖袭击所造成的影响是毁灭性的。

In May, a month after the attacks, visitor numbers were down by around 70%.

在袭击发生一个月后,5月份的游客数量下降了约70%。

Caught off guard and unable to pay wages, some employers were forced to let their staff go.

一些雇主面对这一意外情况措手不及,无力支付工资,被迫解雇员工。

Visitor decline

游客减少

Sri Lanka tourism - shopkeeper

Tourism brings around $4.4 billion to the island nation each year.

旅游业每年给这个岛国带来约44亿美元的收入。

Pixabay/Creative Commons

Pixabay/Creative Commons

Sri Lankan-born Farzana Dobbs, co-owner of boutique hotel Rosyth Estate House, reduced her workers' pay to three-quarters for the months of May and June after guests either canceled or postponed their vacations.

出生于斯里兰卡的法莎娜•多布斯(Farzana Dobbs)是罗赛斯精品酒店房产的业主之一,她在5月和6月将员工的工资降至四分之三,原因是客人们要么取消了假期,要么推迟了假期。

"May was dire," she tells CNN Travel. "We went to full pay from July as we just don't want to lose our workers.

“五月是可怕的,”她在CNN旅游频道称。“我们从7月份开始实行全薪制度,因为我们不想失去我们的工人。

"I think some of the worst hit are the drivers. Most of them have taken leases on their vehicles. They have payments to make and families to look after, and they have no income whatsoever."

“我认为受影响最严重的是司机。他们中的大多数人都租了车。他们要挣钱养家,却没有任何收入。”

Chauffeur and guide Prasad Brandigampola relied on his wife's income when he suddenly found himself with no work, but says many of his peers struggled to make ends meet.

司机兼导游普拉/萨德•布兰迪加波拉(Prasad Brandigampola)突然发现自己失去了工作,只能依靠妻子的收入,但他说,他的很多同行都在努力维持生计。

"For two months there was nothing," he says. "Everyone feels it."

他说:“有两个月什么收入都没有。”“每个人都有同感。”

Sarah Masters from the UK, who has been traveling to Sri Lanka for about 20 years, felt she had no choice but to cancel her 2019 holiday to the island nation.

来自英国的萨拉·马斯特斯(Sarah Masters)已经在斯里兰卡旅行了大约20年,她觉得自己别无选择,只能取消2019年在这个岛国的假期。

"We held on for a while, but the UK Foreign Office said it wasn't safe to go," she tells CNN, referencing the travel warning issued to British travelers after the bombings.

她告诉CNN,“我们坚持了一段时间,但英国外交部说,这是不安全的。”(这里指的是英国外交部在斯里兰卡连环爆炸事件发生后对英国游客发出的旅行警告)

"We finally gave in and canceled when they extended the advice by another two weeks. We were concerned we were going to lose our money."

当他们建议旅行计划延长两个星期后,我们最后还是让步了。我们取消了计划。因为我们担心会赔钱。”

Masters has many friends who live on the island and says they, like others, have been feeling the strain.

马斯特斯有很多朋友住在岛上,他们说,和其他人一样,他们也感到了压力。

"Our friends who have a hotel business in Sri Lanka have been struggling, which isn't a surprise," she says. "One friend lost her job, as there was no work at the hotel she's based at."

“我们在斯里兰卡经营酒店业务的朋友一直在苦苦挣扎,这并不奇怪,”她说。“一个朋友丢了工作,因为她所在的酒店没有工作。”

In the weeks after the attacks, Sri Lanka's beaches and tourist areas remained pretty much deserted, with hotel occupancy dropping by around 85%.

在袭击发生后的几周内,斯里兰卡的海滩和旅游区几乎空无一人,酒店的入住率下降了约85%。

Deserted island

荒岛上

Sri Lanka tourism images

The decline in tourists meant that many workers found themselves unemployed or with little income.

游客的减少意味着许多工人陷入失业或收入微薄。

Courtesy Sri Lanka Tourism

斯里兰卡旅游图片

The tourism industry the country had come to rely so heavily on was on life support. If it was to avoid total collapse, Sri Lanka desperately needed a plan.

这个国家对旅游业的严重依赖已经达到靠其而活的地步。为了避免旅游业全面崩溃,斯里兰卡需要制定一项紧急应对计划。

The solution, it realized early on, was not to sit idly by and wait for recovery. It needed to go on the offensive to quickly win back its visitors.

它很早就意识到,解决办法不是坐等恢复。它需要采取积极攻势,迅速赢回旅客。

Less than a month after the attacks, the government began working with a team of experts in crisis management.

袭击发生后不到一个月,政府开始与危机管理专家团队合作(以商议解决方案)。

Kishu Gomes, chairman of Sri Lanka Tourism, made no secret of the fact his country would have to work hard to reel back visitors. In May, he spoke of "aggressively planning to reassure the world" that it would be safe for them to return.

斯里兰卡旅游局主席Kishu Gomes毫不掩饰他的国家将需要加倍努力来吸引游客的事实。今年5月,他谈到了“向世界做出确保其将重复荣光的积极计划”。

That first step clearly paid off. Just weeks later, in June, many countries, including the United States, revised their advice to their citizens. Warnings of possible imminent attacks were replaced by "exercise caution" notices.

第一步显然取得了成效。几周后,在6月,包括美国在内的许多国家修改了对本国公民的安全建议。有关可能即将发生袭击的警告被“小心行事”的通知取代。

While dozens of people suspected of links to the attacks were arrested in the immediate aftermath, by July the government was reviewing law enforcement. A former police inspector and ex-defense secretary were detained amid accusations of grave negligence.

尽管数十名涉嫌与袭击有关的人立即被捕,但到7月,政府仍在审查执法情况。一名前警察督察和前国防部长因严重失职被拘留。

It's uncertain whether these measures or the fact that hotels were slashing prices by up to 60% can be credited but, the first shoots of recovery were starting to be seen. Visitors were trickling back.

目前还不确定这些措施或酒店降价60%的事实是否可信,但复苏的最初迹象已经开始显现。游客陆续重回斯里兰卡旅游。

Also aiding the recovery was Sri Lanka's July decision to reintroduce visa-free arrivals for visitors from an expanded list of countries that already included EU nations and the United States. Further measures included a reduction in airline ground charges and aviation fuel prices.

斯里兰卡7月重新为来自欧盟国家和美国的游客提供免签证入境服务的决定也帮助了经济复苏。进一步的措施包括降低航空公司的地勤费和航空燃油价格。

Numbers remained significantly down on the previous year, but the disparity was dropping steadily.

与前一年相比,这一数字仍明显下降,但差距正在稳步缩小。

According to the country's Tourism Ministry, a total of 115,701 international tourists arrived in Sri Lanka during July, which marked a decline of over 40% from that same period last year. In August, arrivals increased to 142,587, a 28.3% decline from August 2018. By September the drop was 27.2% year-on-year, with 108,575 arrivals, down from 149,087.

据斯里兰卡旅游部统计,7月份共有115,701名国际游客抵达斯里兰卡,比去年同期下降了40%以上。8月,抵达人数增至142587人,比2018年8月下降了28.3%。到9月份,这一数字同比下降了27.2%,从149087人下降到108575人。

Slow recovery

缓慢的复苏

Sri Lanka tourism images

Visitor numbers have been steadily rising again since June.

自6月以来,游客人数再次稳步上升。

Courtesy Sri Lanka Tourism

斯里兰卡旅游图片

Sam Clark, co-founder of Experience Travel Group, a tour operator specializing in authentic travel experiences in Asia, says that a revival in interest in Sri Lankan holidays could also be partly put down to a willingness among travelers to show solidarity.

山姆•克拉克(Sam Clark)是体验旅游集团(Experience Travel Group)的联合创始人,该集团是一家专门提供亚洲本土旅游体验的旅行社。

"We've had a lot of people calling to say they'd like to come out and support Sri Lanka and now seems like a good time to go," Clark tells CNN Travel.

“我们接到很多人的电话,说他们愿意站出来支持斯里兰卡,现在似乎是时候该行动起来了,”克拉克告诉CNN旅游。

Of course, Sri Lanka's plight isn't unique. It's one of several global destinations to have experienced terrorist attacks over the past two decades, however experts say the relative speed with which the island has bounced back could be down to changing attitudes among travelers.

当然,斯里兰卡并不是唯一陷入困境的地区。它是过去20年里遭受恐怖袭击的几个全球旅游目的地之一,但专家表示,该岛恢复的相对速度可能要归因于游客态度的改变。

The Indonesian island of Bali experienced two major deadly terrorist attacks in 2002 and 2005. The first killed over 200 people, more than half of which were tourists, while the second resulted in the deaths of 20 people.

印度尼西亚的巴厘岛在2002年和2005年遭受了两次重大的致命恐怖袭击。第一次造成200多人死亡,其中一半以上是游客,第二次造成20人死亡。

The Indonesian island nation experienced a dip in visitors on both occasions, but while it managed to recover each time, this took years, not months.

印尼这个岛国的游客数量在这两次事件中都出现了下降,但尽管它每次都成功地恢复了,但这花了几年时间,而不是几个月。

Tunisia was also struck by a series of attacks aimed at tourists in 2015, which resulted in the deaths of 59 foreign visitors.

2015年,突尼斯还发生了一系列针对游客的袭击事件,造成59名外国游客死亡。

The shocking incidents led to beach resorts being closed and the north African country being removed from the destination lists of charter airlines and tour operators.

这些令人震惊的事件导致海滩度假村被关闭,这个北非国家被从包机和旅游运营商的目的地名单中删除。

However, the Tunisia tourism industry has clawed its way back in the last few years, largely thanks to government efforts to improve security and the manner in which its security forces respond to terrorist threats.

然而,在过去几年里,突尼斯旅游业已经慢慢恢复了,这在很大程度上要归功于政府在改善安全保障上的所做的努力,以及突尼斯安全部队应对恐怖主义威胁的方式。

As a result, the country is expecting to log a record 9 million tourists in 2019.

因此,该国预计在2019年接待创纪录的900万游客。

Traveler resilience

旅行者的弹性

Sri Lanka tourism images

Some travelers are choosing to go to Sri Lanka sooner than planned, to show solidarity.

一些旅客选择提前前往斯里兰卡,以示团结。

Courtesy Sri Lanka Tourism

斯里兰卡旅游图片

"If you compare Sri Lanka with Egypt and Tunisia, these countries have had a frequent number of attacks. You would think tourists would never go back," says Dr. Yeganeh Morakabati, an expert in tourism disaster management, recovery and impacts at the UK's Bournemouth University.

“如果你将斯里兰卡与埃及和突尼斯进行比较,你会发现这些国家经常遭受袭击。英国伯恩茅斯大学的旅行地灾后管理、恢复和影响专家Yeganeh Morakabati博士说。

"Every time they've been attacked there has been a drop. But after a short while, the numbers go back up.

“一旦他们遭受袭击,游客数量就会下降。但过了一会儿,这一数字又回升了。

"In Tunisia, the attack was targeted at tourists. And even with that, they are recovering."

在突尼斯,袭击的目标是游客。即便如此,他们也正在恢复当中。”

According to Dr. Morakabati, this suggests tourists aren't as deterred by terrorist attacks as they were a decade or so ago.

莫拉卡巴蒂博士表示,这表明游客不会像十年前那样被恐怖袭击吓退。

"Terrorism does reduce willingness to travel," she adds. "But markets are not reacting in the same way they used to. If you look at the Bali attacks of 2002, people were more shocked than you would say they are with Sri Lanka now."

她补充道:“恐怖主义确实降低了人们的旅行意愿。”但市场的反应与以往不同。如果你看看2002年的巴厘岛袭击事件,你会发现人们比你现在说的对斯里兰卡的更震惊。”

This certainly seems to be the case when taking a close look at hotel bookings before and after such attacks.

如果仔细观察这些袭击前后的酒店预订情况,就会发现情况确实如此。

For instance, New York hotels took 34 months to recover from the 9/11 attacks in 2001, while bookings had returned to normal in London nine months after the 7/7 bombings in 2005.

例如,纽约酒店用了34个月的时间才从2001年的9/11恐怖袭击中恢复过来,而2005年7/7爆炸案发生9个月后,伦敦酒店的预订量才恢复正常。

Meanwhile the Boston Marathon bombing in 2013 had a very limited effect on reservations.

与此同时,2013年波士顿马拉松爆炸案对预订的影响非常有限。

However, a 2015 study by the World Travel and Tourism Council found that while the travel and tourism sector has become more resilient over the years, the time required to bounce back is very specific to the destination affected.

然而,世界旅游和旅游理事会(World Travel and Tourism Council) 2015年的一项研究发现,虽然旅游业多年来变得更有弹性,但恢复所需的时间对受影响的目的地来说非常具体。

It can range from as short as two months to as long as 22 months, with the average recovery time being 13 months.

从两个月到22个月不等,平均恢复时间为13个月。

"The perceived level of safety and security is a key decision-making factor for travelers in selecting their destination," says Tiffany Misrahi, vice president of policy at the WTTC.

WTTC负责政策的副总裁蒂芙尼•米斯拉希(Tiffany Misrahi)表示:“游客在选择目的地时,安全保障的感知水平是一个关键的决策因素。”

"But what you deem unsafe changes with time and familiarity with a destination. Overall, people tend to avoid destinations where there are known conflicts or crisis events.

而是你认为随着时间和对目的地的熟悉而发生的不安全变化。总的来说,人们倾向于避开那些已知存在冲突或危机事件的目的地。

"Destinations which people feel they know and trust, and believe in the stability of the society, are likely to be more resilient," she adds, citing the 2017 London Bridge attack, which didn't affect overall international arrivals that year, as an example.

她以2017年伦敦桥袭击事件为例补充道:“人们觉得自己了解、信任、确信其社会稳定的目的地,其旅游业可能更有弹性。”伦敦桥袭击事件没有影响到那一年的国际游客总数。

"People are becoming more resilient to shocks. But different types of travelers have different risk thresholds."

“人们对冲击的适应能力越来越强。但不同类型的旅行者有不同的风险阈值。”

Government action

政府采取行动

Sri lanka tourism - Kandy train

The train journey from Nuwara Eliya to Kandy is one of Sri Lanka's main attractions.

从Nuwara Eliya到Kandy的火车旅程是斯里兰卡的主要景点之一。

Pixabay/Creative Commons

Pixabay/Creative Commons

Morakabati stresses that Sri Lanka's timeline to full recovery will ultimately depend on whether there is another attack or not.

莫拉卡巴蒂强调,斯里兰卡实现全面恢复所需的时间最终将取决于是否发生另一次袭击。

"Terrorism attracts a lot of attention," she says. "But the shorter the period since the terrorist attack, the higher subjective probability people attach to it.

“恐怖主义吸引了很多关注,”她说。“但恐怖袭击发生的时间越短,人们对其所持态度中的主观因素的比重就越大。

"The key task is to mitigate the occurrence of similar attacks. It's very difficult to prevent, but if Sri Lanka can mitigate it, they will recover."

“关键任务是减少类似攻击的发生。这很难预防,但如果斯里兰卡能够缓解局势,他们就会恢复过来。”

Misrahi shares this sentiment, stressing that the way a destination responds to a crisis is critical, as the wrong approach can stall the process considerably.

Misrahi认同这种观点,她强调,目的地应对危机的方式至关重要,因为错误的做法可能会在很大程度上阻碍这一恢复过程。

"It is important for both governments and the private sector to improve their management to effectively address the crisis and enhance their responsiveness to shocks so as to ensure a speedy recovery," she adds.

她补充说:“政府和私营部门都必须改善管理,有效应对危机,增强应对冲击的能力,以确保经济迅速复苏。”

"In terms of preparedness, building strong coalitions is essential. It is also very important to understand one's vulnerabilities, assess readiness and create emergency action plans and practicing them."

“就准备而言,建立强大的联盟至关重要。了解一个人的弱点、评估准备情况、制定紧急行动计划并付诸实践也非常重要。”

She also affirms that Sri Lanka has the potential to emerge from this greater than before, provided the government responds in the correct way.

她还肯定,如果政府能采取正确的应对方法,斯里兰卡摆脱这种局面的可能性更大。

"A crisis can sometimes be an opportunity to rebuild stronger and better and even rethinking a destination's product offering," says Misrahi. "In a way, a destination can start fresh."

Misrahi说:“危机有时也是机遇,它可以让我们重建得更强大、更好,甚至重新考虑目的地的产品供应。”“在某种程度上,一个目的地可以重新开始。”

While there are still concerns that Sri Lanka's upcoming presidential elections could renew tensions in the island nation, hotel worker Harin Thomas also feels that some good can come from the devastating events of April 21.

虽然人们仍然担心斯里兰卡即将举行的总统选举可能会使这个岛国的紧张局势再度升级,但酒店工作人员哈林·托马斯也认为,4月21日发生的灾难性事件可能会带来一些好处。

He notes that security on the island nation was stepped up considerably in the months after the attacks, while hotels and tour operators have had time to regroup during what would have been one of their peak seasons.

他指出,在袭击发生后的几个月里,这个岛国的安全措施大大加强了,酒店和旅游运营商也有时间在本应是旅游旺季的时候进行重组。

"This situation has given everyone the chance to see things in a different way," he says. "We are looking at how we can offer a better service in the future."

他表示:“这种情况给了每个人以不同方式看待事物的机会。”“我们正在考虑如何在未来提供更好的服务。”

Thomas attributes this adaptability to the spirit of a nation that's experienced more than its fair share of trials and tribulations over the years.

托马斯将这种适应性归因于长久以来经历的过多考验与磨难所筑就的民族精神。

"Yes, we had a very unfortunate incident," he continues. "But we are very resilient. As a nation, we have decided to move forward."

“是的,我们经历了非常不幸的意外事件,”他继续说。“但我们的适应力很强。作为一个国家,我们已经决定向前迈进。”

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