社会工作者说,让这个年龄的孩子独处是一种忽视
Social workers say leaving a child alone at this age is neglect
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2019-11-18 11:59
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火星译客

Leaving a child alone in the home before the age of 12 constitutes child neglect, according to a survey of social workers.

社会工作者作出的一项调查显示,把12以下的孩子独自留在家里是对孩子构成了一种忽视。

The research involved 485 social workers specializing in child and family welfare, who were asked whether it is appropriate to leave a child home alone for four hours at various ages.

有485名专门从事儿童和家庭福利的社会工作者参与了这项调查,他们甚至都被人问及把不同年龄段的儿童独自留在家里四个小时是否合适。

Almost all participants agreed leaving a four-year-old unsupervised amounts to neglect. More than half agreed a child was neglected if they were unsupervised in the home between the ages of six to 10, at 97 percent, 83 percent, and 51 percent for the ages of six, eight, and 10, respectively. This dropped to 11 percent for a 12-year-old, and 1 percent if the child was 14.

几乎所有参与者都认为,将一个四岁的孩子置于无人监管的情况下就等于忽视了孩子。超过一半的人认为,如果一个6-10岁年龄段的孩子留在家中,还无人看管,那么他就会被忽视。分别有97%,83%和51%的人认为他在6岁、8岁和10岁时被人忽视过。这一比例在12岁的儿童中降至11%,在14岁的儿童中降至1%.

But the percentage who agreed a child had been neglected shot up to 64 percent if the 12-year-old was injured or if there was a home alone law in place where they lived, and to 51 percent if they were 14.

但是,如果12岁的孩子受伤了,或者他们居住的城市有单独家庭法,那么同意孩子被忽视的比例就会上升到64%,如果他们14岁,这个比例就会上升到51%。

When asked to consider potential laws, 94 percent of respondents agreed it should be illegal for a child aged 8 or younger to be expected to care for themselves, and 80 percent for those aged 10 or under.

当被问及是否考虑制定相关法律时,94%的受访者认为,让8岁或更小的孩子照顾自己是非法的,80%的人认为10岁或更小的孩子照顾自己是非法的。 

The survey carried out in 2015 was conducted online among members of the National Association of Social Workers.

这项于2015年开展的调查是在全国社会工作者协会成员中进行的。

The researchers wrote: "These results suggest the need for guidelines and/or safety laws related to childhood supervision, as well as their uniformity across the country, in order to direct social workers in their evaluation of potential cases of child neglect and to better protect children from harm."

研究人员写道:“这些结果表明,需要制定与儿童监管相关的指导方针和/或安全法律,以及全国范围内的统一标准,来指导社会工作者评估潜在的忽视儿童的案例,并更好地保护儿童免受伤害。”

Study co-author Dr. Charles Jennissen, professor and pediatric emergency medicine staff physician for the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine in Iowa City, commented in a statement: "We found that social workers who participated in the study were significantly more likely to consider it child neglect when a child was left home alone if the child had suffered an injury, as compared to when they did not.

该研究的合著者Charles Jennissen博士是来自于爱荷华市的爱荷华大学卡佛医学院的教授和儿科急诊医师。他在一份声明中评论道:我们发现,与没有受伤的孩子相比,参与研究的社会工作者在孩子独自在家时更容易认为孩子受到忽视。“

"The level of neglect is really the same whether a child knowingly left home alone is injured or not, and such situations should be handled the same by child protective investigators," he said.

他说:“不管一个孩子是故意离开家独自受伤还是没有受伤,被忽视的程度都是一样的,这种情况应该由儿童保护调查人员来处理。”

The abstract for the study, entitled "Social Workers' Determination of When a Child Being Left Home Alone Constitutes Child Neglect," will be presented at the American Academy of Pediatrics 2019 National Conference and Exhibition on Monday. The research has not been published in a peer-reviewed journal.

这项研究的摘要名为“社会工作者对儿童何时被单独留在家中构成儿童忽视的判断”,将于下周一在2019年度美国儿科学会全国会议和展览上公布。目前,这项研究尚未发表于同行评审的期刊上面。

Past research has shown 40 percent of injury-related deaths of children in the U.S. happened when an ad/ult wasn't around, the authors pointed out.

作者指出,过去的研究表明,在美国,与伤害相关的儿童死亡中,有40%的案例是在没有成人监护的情况下发生的。

Illinois, Maryland, and Oregon are the only states to have laws regarding the minimum age a child can be left alone, at the ages of 14, 8 and 10, respectively.

伊利诺斯州、马里兰州和俄勒冈州是仅有的几个有法律规定孩子可以单独生活的最低年龄的州,分别是14岁、8岁和10岁。

Other states have more flexible laws, with some classifying neglect as failing to provide adequate supervision of a child, according to the Children's Bureau.

根据儿童局的说法,其他州有更灵活的法律,一些州将忽视儿童归为未能对儿童提供足够的监督。

In order to decide whether their child can safely be left at home, parents should consider their maturity and if they are mentally and physically capable of caring for themselves, the agency advised.

该机构建议,为了决定是否可以安全地把孩子留在家里,父母应该考虑孩子的成熟程度,以及他们在精神和身体上是否有能力照顾自己的条件。

Children should be deemed able to obey rules and make "good decisions," cope with unfamiliar or stressful situations, and not have a fear of being home alone before being left unsupervised. Parents may choose to arrange supervision for children with developmental or intellectual disabilities, the Children's Bureau said.

人们应该认为孩子们能够遵守规则,并做出“正确的决定”来应对不熟悉的或有压力的情况,在无人监管之前,不应该害怕孩子独自一人在家。儿童局表示,家长可以选择安排对有发育或智力障碍的儿童进行监护。

2019-18-11-11-59-03-5dd21707a1364.jpg baby, girl, dog, pet, home, neglect, stock,getty

A survey has revealed the attitudes of social workers towards child neglect. A stock image of a 1-year-old irl and her pet dog waiting at the door of their home. Getty

一项调查揭示了社会工作者对儿童忽视的态度。一张1岁的irl和她的宠物狗等在家门口的照片。盖蒂

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