中国的“理想男人”形象
China's image of the 'ideal man'
2284字
2019-11-08 12:36
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火星译客

This feature is part of a wider CNN Style series on how culture in China is evolving in the Xi Jinping era.

这是CNN关于习近平时代中国文化演变的系列报道的一部分。

Musk Ming paints Chinese men in suggestive poses. Delicate ink-formed faces stare longingly from the paper, their lean bodies dressed in green caps with red stars. Some wear white and navy sailor hats with ribbons. Others are cloaked in olive coats with brown faux fur collars. The men may not be wearing much, but the accoutrements of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) are unmistakable.

麝明(跨界艺术音乐人)的画作以中国男人为主题,大摆挑逗姿势。精致的脸庞,亮晶晶的眼睛凝望前方,整幅画在渲染的墨色中,透露出人物的渴望与期盼。一个个身形瘦削,头戴绿帽,上面还点缀着红色的星星。他们中有些人戴着海军蓝的水手帽,上头系着长长的白丝带。其他人则身着橄榄色大衣,围着棕色的人造毛皮领子。这些人的穿着可能并不突出,但从其装备来看,中国人民解/放军的形象有目共见

For Ming, born and raised in China but living in Berlin since 2005, the risqué motif of homoerotic PLA soldiers came naturally.

尽管麝明生于中国、长于中国,但对于自2005年就留居柏林的这样一位艺术家来说,其惯用的主题就是中国军人身份的同性恋者,看似不雅,刻画起来却是相当自然。

"Expectation" by Musk Ming.

"Expectation" by Musk Ming.

麝明的《期待》。

Credit: Musk Ming

图片来源:麝明

"I paint what interests me -- and from personal experience," said the 40-year-old gay artist, who uses "Musk Ming" as a pseudonym. He grew up in a military compound in northern China and attended a Chinese naval academy before moving to Germany. "The soldiers I saw were the ideal men: young, innocent ... and beautiful."

这位40岁的同性恋艺术家“麝明”(化名)说:“我画出自己感兴趣的东西,并从亲身经历中汲取灵感。”他在中国北方的一个军事大院中长大,在移居德国之前曾就读于中国海军学院。”我看到的士兵都是理想中的男人形象,他们年轻、天真而美丽的。”

That's hardly how China's strictly controlled state media described uniformed men in its recent exhaustive coverage of the country's grand military parade, which marked the 70th anniversary of Communist rule.

最近,受控严格的中国官媒对纪念中国共产党执政70周年盛大阅兵式中身着军服出现的解放/军们进行了详尽报道,很难将其与上文所刻画的中国男人形象匹配起来。

On October 1, millions of Chinese viewers watched an all-powerful President Xi Jinping approvingly inspect 15,000 PLA troops -- mostly young male soldiers with chiseled faces and fierce looks -- as they goose-stepped through the center of Beijing, followed by columns of tanks, missiles and drones.

10月1日,数百万中国观众观看了中国国家主席习近平检阅1.5万名解放/军士兵并对其与予以赞许的场面。这些士兵大多是年轻的男性,面部轮廓分明,表情凶狠。

Chinese soldiers shout as they march in formation during a parade to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China.

Chinese soldiers shout as they march in formation during a parade to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China.

在庆祝中华人民共和国成立70周年的阅兵式上,中国士兵列队行进时高喊口号。

Credit: Kevin Frayer/Getty Images

图片来源:Kevin Frayer /盖蒂图片社

Underscoring the soldiers' physical and mental toughness, adulatory news reports detailed every aspect of their selection and training for the grandiose display of Chinese military might.

新闻报道夸大了这些士兵在遭遇身体及精神困难时的坚韧不拔,过分刻画其在选拔和训练等各个方面上的突出表现,以炫耀中国的军事实力。

The vast chasm between Ming's work and the images shown in state media perfectly illustrates a heated debate in China about what constitutes the image of the "ideal man."

麝明的作品与官方媒体所强调的男子形象形成了强烈反差,这也生动说明了中国民众对于“理想男人”形象的理解各有侧重,争执不下。

It's a conversation unfolding as the ruling Communist Party's cultural czars tighten their grip over the country's creative sector by, among much else, regulating the on-air appearances of male celebrities, from movie stars to boyband members.

在中国共产党的执政地位下,从电影明星到男孩组合成员等一系列男性名人,仅电视直播就受到文化独裁的严厉管控,从而进一步加强了对中国创意产业的控制。

Depicting masculinity in art

艺术所刻画的男子气概

In discussions about masculinity in China's heavily censored cyberspace, a consensus often emerges on the gold standard of an ideal Chinese man: the PLA soldier.

中国的舆情在相关部门的严格审查下,有关男子气概的在线讨论往往会形成一种共识,即中国理想男人的黄金标准:解放/军战士。

It's a sentiment that experts say has been reflected in art throughout the history of the People's Republic, which was founded in 1949 by Mao Zedong following the Communists' triumph in a bloody civil war.

专家们透露,这种情绪在中华人民共和国的整个历史中都有所反映。中华人民共和国成立于1949年,是在共产党人在血腥的内战中取得胜利之后,由毛泽东创建的。

From vintage propaganda posters to slick new music videos, images of PLA troops have long shaped modern Chinese perceptions of masculinity. The soldiers' strong bodies and minds are touted as the ultimate male virtues, along with their fierce loyalty to the party -- qualities that some say Xi eagerly wants to promote as he vows to lead China into a great "national rejuvenation."

从老式的宣传海报到精美的新式音乐视频,长期以来所塑造的解/放军的形象使现代中国人对男子气概的理解存在固有限制。士兵们强健的身体和坚定的信念,以及他们对党的无比忠诚,被吹捧为男性的最高美德。一些人说,习近平在誓言带领中国实现伟大的“民族复兴”时,迫切希望提升这些品质。

Propaganda poster decpits a People's Liberation Army soldier holding Mao Zedong's "Little Red Book."

Propaganda poster decpits a People's Liberation Army soldier holding Mao Zedong's "Little Red Book."

宣传海报上,一名解放/军战士手持毛泽东的“小红宝书”。

Credit: GraphicaArtis/Archive Photos/Getty Images

图片来源:图形艺术/存档照片/ 盖蒂图片社

For the first three decades of Communist rule, artistic depictions of Chinese men were dominated by heroic portrayals of PLA soldiers and, to a lesser degree, farmers and industrial workers -- two pillars of the proletariat class.

在共产党执政的头三十年里,对中国男人的艺术描绘无外乎就是解放/军战士、农民及工人的英雄形象,其后者在一定程度上是无产阶级的两大支柱。

Although some of the genre's works were created with ink, in a traditional Chinese style, the majority comprised neoclassical oil paintings or watercolors by artists who either studied overseas or were influenced by Western trends, according to You Yang, deputy director of the Beijing-based UCCA Center for Contemporary Art.

北京的UCCA尤伦斯当代艺术中心(中国领先的当代艺术机构)副主任游洋表示,虽然这类作品中有一些是用水墨创作的,但大多数都是中国传统风格的新古典主义油画或水彩画,这些艺术家要么是在海外留学,要么是受到了西方潮流的影响。

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