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类似变形金刚的折纸机器人

Transformers-like origami robot
类似变形金刚的折纸机器人
1588字
2019-10-14 20:11
73阅读
火星译客

As a roboticist, I get asked a lot of questions. "When we will they start serving me breakfast?"

身为机器人学家,我被问过很多问题。“何时才有会做早餐的机器人?”

So I thought the future of robotics would be looking more like us. I thought they would look like me, so I built eyes that would simulate my eyes. I built fingers that are dextrous enough to serve me ... baseballs.

我过去认为未来的机器人会跟我们长得很像。我觉得它们会长得像我一样,所以我用自己的眼睛当范本来为它们做眼睛。我给它们做手指,让它们能灵活地丢棒球。

Classical robots like this are built and become functional based on the fixed number of joints and actuators.

这种传统式的机器人有一定数量的关节和致动器来执行它的功能。

And this means their functionality and shape are already fixed at the moment of their conception. So even though this arm has a really nice throw -- it even hit the tripod at the end, it's not meant for cooking you breakfast per se. It's not really suited for scrambled eggs. 

这也表示,在设计构思的阶段,它们就已有了一定的功能和形状。所以,就算它能完美地投球--打到三角架了,但它也不能为你做早餐。它也无法帮你炒蛋。

So this was when I was hit by a new vision of future robotics: the transformers.

思索至此,我对未来的机器人有了新的构想:变形金刚。

They drive, they run, they fly, all depending on the ever-changing, new environment and task at hand. To make this a reality, you really have to rethink how robots are designed.

它们能疾驶、奔跑、飞翔,随着多变的环境和任务来变化。为了让这个想法成真,就必须重新思考机器人设计的概念。

So, imagine a robotic module in a polygon shape and using that simple polygon shape to reconstruct multiple different forms to create a new form of robot for different tasks.

想象一下,如果有一个多角形的机器人模块,运用简单的多角形来变化成多种不同形状,我们就可以用这样的模块来建造多才多艺的新型机器人。

In CG, computer graphics, it's not any news -- it's been done for a while, and that's how most of the movies are made.

这在计算机绘图的领域中不是新概念,它已应用多年,现在的电影大量运用这项技术。

But if you're trying to make a robot that's physically moving, it's a completely new story. It's a completely new paradigm. But you've all done this.

但要建造一个可以移动机器人,就完全是另一回事了。因为没有前例可循。但各位都有过折纸的经验。

Who hasn't made a paper airplane, paper boat, paper crane? Origami is a versatile platform for designers. From a single sheet of paper, you can make multiple shapes, and if you don't like it, you unfold and fold back again.

谁还没有折过纸飞机、纸船、纸鹤吗?以设计的角度来看,折纸是一种变化多端的平台。用一张纸,你就能折出各种形状,如果你不喜欢折出来的作品,可以拆开来重新折成别的东西。

Any 3D form can be made from 2D surfaces by folding, and this is proven mathematically. And imagine if you were to have an intelligent sheet that can self-fold into any form it wants, anytime.

任何立体形状都可以用平面来折迭成型,这是数学可以证明的。如果这张纸长了脑袋,就可以自己随时折成任何形状。

And that's what I've been working on. I call this robotic origami, "robogami." This is our first robogami transformation that was made by me about 10 years ago.

这就是我目前致力创造的东西。我称之为“折纸式机器人”。这是我十年前做的折纸式机器人首次变形的过程。

From a flat-sheeted robot, it turns into a pyramid and back into a flat sheet and into a space shuttle. Quite cute. Ten years later, with my group of ninja origami robotic researchers -- about 22 of them right now we have a new generation of robogamis, and they're a little more effective and they do more than that.

它从一个平面,变成金字塔形状,然后再变回来,接着变成航天飞机的形状。很可爱吧!十年后的今天,我的折纸式机器人忍者研究团队--成员约有22人。而且我们已经做出新一代的折纸式机器人,它们的执行效率更高,能做的事情也更多。

So the new generation of robogamis actually serve a purpose. For example, this one actually navigates through different terrains autonomously.

新一代折纸式机器人有实际用途。

举个例子,这个机器人能根据地形来自主导航。

在干燥和平坦的地面,它会用爬的。

突然碰到崎岖不平的地形,它会开始用滚的。

So when it's a dry and flat land, it crawls. And if it meets sudden rough terrain, it starts rolling.

当在干燥和平坦的地面,它会用爬的。突然碰到崎岖不平的地形,它会开始用滚的。

It does this -- it's the same robot -- but depending on which terrain it meets, it activates a different sequence of actuators that's on board.

它会这样--这是同一个机器人--随着碰到的地形,它会启动致动器中不同组的程序。

And once it meets an obstacle, it jumps over it. It does this by storing energy in each of its legs and releasing it and catapulting like a slingshot.

一旦有障碍物,它会跳过去。这是借着在它的腿中储存能量,然后在释放能量时让它像射弹弓一样弹出去。

And it even does gymnastics. Yay. So I just showed you what a single robogami can do. Imagine what they can do as a group. They can join forces to tackle more complex tasks.

它甚至还能会体操动作。耶!你们刚刚看到了单一折纸式机器人的能耐。想象一下成群时它们能做什么。它们能合力执行更复杂的工作。

Each module, either active or passive, we can assemble them to create different shapes.

每个模块--有的是主动式模块,有的是被动式模块--能组合成不同的形状。

Not only that, by controlling the folding joints, we're able to create and attack different tasks.

更甚于此,我们能藉由控制折迭处的关节,让它们有能力因应更多不同的工作。

The form is making new task space. And this time, what's most important is the assembly.

组合的形状决定它能创造的新功能。此时,最重要的就是组合的动作。

They need to autonomously find each other in a different space, attach and detach, depending on the environment and task.

各个模块必须在分散各处的情况下找到彼此,然后视环境和任务的需要组合或分离。

And we can do this now. So what's next? Our imagination. This is a simulation of what you can achieve with this type of module.

这我们已经办到了。接下来呢?那就要运用想象力了。我们用这种模块做了一些仿真。

We decided that we were going to have a four-legged crawler turn into a little dog and make small gaits. With the same module, we can actually make it do something else: a manipulator, a typical, classical robotic task.

我们决定要做一个用四只脚爬行的机器人,它变成一只小狗,然后小步走路。我们能用同一个模块做成别的东西:机械手,一种典型的传统机器人。

So with a manipulator, it can pick up an object. Of course, you can add more modules to make the manipulator legs longer to attack or pick up objects that are bigger or smaller, or even have a third arm.

机械手可以把东西拿起来。你当然也可以加用更多模块,让机器手臂更长,来拿起更大或更小的物体,或让它有第三只手臂。

For robogamis, there's no one fixed shape nor task. They can transform into anything, anywhere, anytime. So how do you make them?

折纸式机器人没有特定的形状,也没有特定的功能。它们能随时随地变成任何东西。所以这种机器人是怎么建造的呢?

The biggest technical challenge of robogami is keeping them super thin, flexible, but still remaining functional.

技术上最大的挑战是超薄化,让它们更灵活,同时保有功能性。

They're composed of multiple layers of circuits, motors, microcontrollers and sensors, all in the single body, and when you control individual folding joints, you'll be able to achieve soft motions like that upon your command.

每个单一的机体都是由多层电路、马达、微控制器和传感器组成,如果折迭处的关节都能分别控制,一个指令就能够达成像那样柔软的动作。

Instead of being a single robot that is specifically made for a single task, robogamis are optimized to do multi-tasks.

一个机器人不再只有一种用途,折纸式机器人是优化的多任务机器人。

And this is quite important for the difficult and unique environments on the Earth as well as in space.

这项技术在地球以及太空中各种独特的环境里,有很重要的用途。

Space is a perfect environment for robogamis. You cannot afford to have one robot for one task. Who knows how many tasks you will encounter in space?

折纸式机器人最适合应用于太空的环境。单工机器人成本太高。而且谁知道你在太空中会遇到多少任务?

What you want is a single robotic platform that can transform to do multi-tasks. What we want is a deck of thin robogami modules that can transform to do multiples of performing tasks.

我们需要的是一个能变形来执行各种工作的机器人平台。一种薄型折纸式机器人模块的太空舱,机器人能各自变形来完成各种工作。

And don't take my word for it, because the European Space Agency and Swiss Space Center are sponsoring this exact concept.

口说无凭,欧洲太空总署和瑞士太空中心已赞助了这个概念。

So here you see a couple of images of reconfiguration of robogamis, exploring the foreign land aboveground, on the surface, as well as digging into the surface.

现在你可以看到折纸式机器人多种组态的画面,它们探索外星,能在地表工作,也能飞天遁地。

It's not just exploration. For astronauts, they need additional help, because you cannot afford to bring interns up there, either.

它们的功能也不仅止于探索。航天员需要协助,但把实习生送上太空也不敷成本。

They have to do every tedious task. They may be simple, but super interactive. So you need robots to facilitate their experiments, assisting them with the communications and just docking onto surfaces to be their third arm holding different tools.

他们要自己做各种单调的工作,这些工作可能很单纯,但互动性很高。这时候就可能需要机器人来帮他们进行实验、协助执行输送任务,或直接附着在舱壳上,变成航天员的第三只手臂,自己拿着工具工作。

But how will they be able to control robogamis, for example, outside the space station?

但航天员该如何在舱内控制舱外的折纸式机器人呢?

In this case, I show a robogami that is holding space debris. You can work with your vision so that you can control them, but what would be better is having the sensation of touch directly transported onto the hands of the astronauts.

这里看到的是一个机器人拿着太空残骸。如果能看到舱外的状况,就能控制机器人,但如果航天员能用手的触觉感受到太空舱外的物体,那就更好了。

And what you need is a haptic device, a haptic interface that recreates the sensation of touch. And using robogamis, we can do this.

此时我们需要的是仿真触觉的装置,一种触觉仿真的接口,重现目标物触摸起来的感觉。这是折纸式机器人做得到的。

This is the world's smallest haptic interface that can recreate a sensation of touch just underneath your fingertip.

这是全世界最小的触觉仿真接口,它能在你的指尖下模拟触觉的感受。

We do this by moving the robogami by microscopic and macroscopic movements at the stage.

折纸式机器人是在模拟台上以肉眼看不出来的显微动作,搭配肉眼可见的动作,来达成这项模拟。

And by having this, not only will you be able to feel how big the object is, the roundness and the lines, but also the stiffness and the texture.

有了这项装置,你不但能感觉到这物体有多大、多圆,或线条状,还能感觉到软硬度和质地。

Alex has this interface just underneath his thumb, and if he were to use this with VR goggles and hand controllers, now the virtual reality is no longer virtual. It becomes a tangible reality.

影片中,接口在艾力克斯的拇指下,如果再搭配使用虚拟现实眼镜和手动控制器,虚拟现实就不再是虚拟了,而是摸得到的实境。

The blue ball, red ball and black ball that he's looking at is no longer differentiated by colors.

他看到的蓝球、红球、黑球,不再只能用颜色来区分。

Now it is a rubber blue ball, sponge red ball and billiard black ball. This is now possible. Let me show you. This is really the first time this is shown live in front of a public grand audience, so hopefully this works.

蓝球是橡皮做的,红球是海绵做的,黑球是撞球。这已经变成可能。我来示范给你们看。这真的是第一次在这么多观众的公开场合做展示,希望行得通。

So what you see here is an atlas of anatomy and the robogami haptic interface.

你现在看到的是人体解剖图,以及折纸式机器人的触觉仿真接口。

So, like all the other reconfigurable robots, it multitasks. Not only is it going to serve as a mouse, but also a haptic interface.

就像其他所有可重新组态的机器人,它具有多任务性。它不但是个鼠标,同样也是个触觉仿真接口。

So for example, we have a white background where there is no object.

比如说,空白背景中没有物体。

That means there is nothing to feel, so we can have a very, very flexible interface. Now, I use this as a mouse to approach skin, a muscular arm, so now let's feel his biceps, or shoulders. So now you see how much stiffer it becomes.

所以没有感觉要模拟,这界面就会很软。现在,我把它当作鼠标移到皮肤上,肌肉发达的手臂上,我们来摸一下他的二头肌,然后他的肩膀。你可以看到它变得比较硬。

Let's explore even more. Let's approach the ribcage. And as soon as I move on top of the ribcage and between the intercostal muscles, which is softer and harder, I can feel the difference of the stiffness. Take my word for it.

我们来摸其他部位。现在移到他的胸廓。当我在胸腔顶部和肋间肌之间移动时,马上感觉到由硬变软,有很明显的差别。你们要相信我。

So now you see, it's much stiffer in terms of the force it's giving back to my fingertip.

你们看,现在摸起来很硬,因为传到我指尖的反作用力比较大。

So I showed you the surfaces that aren't moving. How about if I were to approach something that moves, for example, like a beating heart? What would I feel?

刚才都是摸一些静止的表面。摸到在动的东西会怎么样呢,比如说,跳动的心脏?会有什么感觉呢?

This can be your beating heart. This can actually be inside your pocket while you're shopping online.

有一天这可能是你的心脏。在网络上购物的时候,将此装置放在口袋里。

Now you'll be able to feel the difference of the sweater that you're buying, how soft it is, if it's actually cashmere or not, or the bagel that you're trying to buy, how hard it is or how crispy it is. This is now possible.

你就能伸手到口袋里,摸到毛衣的不同质地,它有多柔软,是不是真的克什米尔羊毛,如果你想买贝果,你能感觉到它有多硬或多脆。这已经变成可能。

The robotics technology is advancing to be more personalized and adaptive, to adapt to our everyday needs.

机器人技术已进步到更个人化和更有适应性,来因应我们日常的需求。

This unique specie of reconfigurable robotics is actually the platform to provide this invisible, intuitive interface to meet our exact needs.

这种独特的可重组态机器人技术为无形而直觉的接口提供平台,来迎合我们各种特定的需求。

These robots will no longer look like the characters from the movies.

这些机器人不再像是电影中看到的机器人角色。

Instead, they will be whatever you want them to be.

而是你们想要的,它们就会变成那个样子。

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