波音VS空客
Boeing vs Airbus
751字
2019-10-09 19:43
64阅读
火星译客

Most museum exhibits are beautiful—or at least old.

大多数博物馆的展品都很美,或者至少都很古老。

But an exhibition in 2015 at the World Trade Organisation (WTO) included 60 cardboard boxes of documents.

但2015年世界贸易组织(WTO)的一次展览展出了60箱文件。

The point was to give a sense of the scale of two of the body's longest and largest legal disputes, over American and European subsidies for aircraft manufacturers.

其目的是为了让人们了解该组织历时最长、规模最大的两起法律纠纷的规模,这两起纠纷涉及美国和欧洲对飞机制造商的补贴。

Now the fight is moving out of the paperwork phase. That means tariffs are coming.

现在,这场斗争已经走出了书面工作阶段。这意味着关税即将到来。

On October 2nd the WTO published its decision to allow the Trump administration to put tariffs on $7.5bn-worth of imports from the European Union.

10月2日,WTO公布其决定,允许特朗普政府对从欧盟进口的75亿美元商品征收关税。

That is intended to match the harm done to Boeing, an American manufacturer, by the EU's subsidies for Airbus, Boeing's European rival.

此举意在弥补欧盟补贴波音的欧洲竞争对手空客而给美国制造商波音造成的损失。

It is the largest retaliation the WTO has ever approved.

这是WTO批准的有史以来最大的报复行动。

Senior officials at the United States Trade Representative (USTR) called the victory "historic".

美国贸易代表署(USTR)高级官员称这是一场“历史性”的胜利。

The dispute has been long and bitter.

这场纠纷是漫长而激烈的。

In October 2004 America complained to the trade body about loans offered by EU governments to Airbus on easy terms.

2004年10月,美国向WTO投诉称欧盟政府以优惠条款向空客提供贷款。

The following June the EU filed a complaint about the harm to Airbus from subsidies to Boeing, in the form of tax breaks and generous contracts with the Department of Defence.

次年6月,欧盟以税收减免以及与美国国防部签订慷慨合同的形式对补贴波音公司对空客公司造成的损害提出申诉。

Since then there has been enough legal back-and-forth to bore the most ardent plane-spotter.

自那时起,来回的法律纠纷足以让热心的飞机观察员感到厌烦。

The WTO ruled against both subsidisers. Each made some adjustments supposed to resolve the other's complaints—but neither was satisfied.

WTO作出不利于双方的裁决。各方都作出了一些调整,希望可以解决另一方的抱怨—但是双方都不满意。

The latest judgment comes as the EU's claim of compliance is still being assessed.

在最新裁决出炉之际,欧盟的合规声明仍在评估之中。

In around eight months, the WTO is likely to authorise the EU to put tariffs on American imports, completing the tit for tat.

在约八个月内,WTO可能授权欧盟对美国进口征税,以牙还牙。

In a narrow sense, this is the multilateral rules-based trading system working as intended.

在狭义上,这是一个以规则为基础的多边贸易体系。

Both parties went through the proper channels to receive an official judgment. Neither took matters into its own hands.

双方通过适当渠道接受正式判决。双方都没有亲自参与。

The tariffs America is about to impose on Europe are not unilateral bullying, but an enforcement mechanism of last resort.

美国即将对欧洲征收的关税不是单方面的欺凌,而是最后的强制执行机制。

They would probably have been applied by any president, even one less tariff- happy than Donald Trump.

任何总统都可能会使用这种机制,哪怕是不像唐纳德·特朗普那样喜欢征收关税的总统。

In a broader sense, it shows how vulnerable those multilateral rules are to time-wasters.

从广义上将,这表明那些多边规则对浪费时间的人来说有多么的脆弱。

In a sector like aircraft manufacturing, where subsidies are ubiquitous, it has always been clear that America and the EU needed to agree to mutual disarmament.

在一个像飞机制造这样的部门中,补贴无处不在,很明显,美国和欧盟需要就相互裁军达成一致。

Instead, they have talked past each other, each complaining at various points that the other was unwilling to negotiate.

相反,他们只是各执一词,各自在不同的地方抱怨对方不愿谈判。

Most recently it has been the EU that has submitted proposals to America, only to be rebuffed.

最近是欧盟向美国提交了提案,却遭到拒绝。

Meanwhile, the boxes have been piling up and the lawyers raking in fees.

与此同时,箱子越堆越高,律师们也赚了不少钱。

The Trump administration wasted no time in starting the formalities at the WTO that will allow it to apply the tariffs.

特朗普政府不失时机地在WTO开始了允许其实施关税的手续。

That means the EU can expect tariffs on October 18th.

这意味着将在10月18日对欧盟征收关税。

As well as tariffs of 10% on large aircraft and 25% on agricultural and industrial goods, the list the USTR published on October 2nd included Italian Parmesan, Scotch whisky and German waffles.

除了对大型飞机征收10%的关税以及对农工产品征收25%的关税外,USTR在10月日公布的名单中还包括意大利的帕尔玛干酪、苏格兰威士忌酒以及德国华夫饼干。

Even if a product is not on the list it may still be hit, as items could be shuffled in and out.

即便是不在名单中的产品仍有可能命中,因为产品条目可以被添加和删减。

For all the fuss the dispute will generate among connoisseurs of European cheese, the biggest impact will be on aircraft, of which America imported $5.1bn-worth in 2018, mostly from France and Germany (the USTR has said that only a portion will be hit).

这场纠纷将会在欧洲奶酪鉴赏家中引起轩然波动,受影响最大的将是飞机,2018年美国进口了价值51亿美元的飞机,大部分是从法国和德国进口(USTR表示只有一部分将受到打击)。

It could have been worse—the Americans could have applied a tariff of up to 100%—but even one of 10% will bite.

情况本会更糟——美国本可以征收最高为100%的关税——但即使是10%的关税也会产生影响。

American airlines fear that tariffs will raise the price of Airbus aircraft, and that Boeing will lack the capacity to expand supply.

美国航空公司担心关税会提高空客飞机的价格,也担心波音将缺乏扩大供应的能力。

Perhaps the WTO will find that the EU has removed its subsidies, and the Americans will stand down.

大概WTO将发现欧盟已经取消了它的补贴,美国人将会退出。

Or in eight months'time, when the WTO authorises the EU to place retaliatory tariffs on American imports as part of the Boeing dispute, the two sides might finally negotiate away their differences.

或者在八个月的时间里,在这场波音纠纷中,当WTO授权欧盟对美国进口征收报复性关税时,双方可能最终通过谈判消除分歧。

By then Mr Trump's appetite for tariffs may have been sated, and he might abandon separate threats to put tariffs on European cars and car parts.

到那时,特朗普对关税的胃口可能已经得到极大满足,并且他可能会放弃对欧洲汽车和汽车零部件征收关税的威胁。

But it is also possible that trade disputes between the two sides become fiercer.

但也有可能双方贸易纠纷愈演愈烈。

America is blocking the appointment of judges to the WTO's court of appeals.

美国正在阻止WTO上诉法院法官的任命。

If either side makes a move that the other judges an infraction, and a complaint to the WTO cannot be heard for lack of judges, that could be the end of playing by the rules.

如果任何一方采取了另一方认为违规的行动,并由于缺乏法官而向WTO提出的申诉无法得到审理,那么这可能是按规矩办事的结果。

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