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欧盟要求鲍里斯·约翰逊在两周内拿出一份爱尔兰后备案

Boris Johnson given two-week EU deadline for Irish backstop plan
欧盟要求鲍里斯·约翰逊在两周内拿出一份爱尔兰后备案
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2019-09-19 21:48
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欧盟要求鲍里斯·约翰逊在两周内拿出一份爱尔兰后备案

Boris Johnson has been set a two-week deadline to table a plan for replacing the Irish backstop as further embarrassing details emerged of the prime minister’s chaotic visit to Luxembourg.

由于首相访问卢森堡时情况混乱且尴尬细节迭出,约翰逊·鲍里森被要求在两周的截止期限内提出一份新方案以替代此前的爱尔兰后备案。

France’s president, Emmanuel Macron, and Finland’s prime minister, Antti Rinne, told reporters in Paris that they were both “concerned about what is happening in Britain”.

法国总统伊曼纽尔·马克龙和芬兰首相安蒂·林内告诉在巴黎的记者,他们两人都“对英国的状况深感忧虑”。

“We need to know what the UK is proposing,” said Rinne, whose country currently holds the EU’s rotating presidency. “Loose talk about proposals for negotiations is irresponsible … The UK should make its possible own proposals very soon if they would like them to be discussed.”

林内表示:“我们需要了解英国的提案的具体内容。”芬兰是现任欧盟轮值主席国。“因为谈判而对提案信口开河是不负责任的……如果不想被人说三道四,英国应该尽快提出可行的提案。”

Rinne said: “We both agreed that it is now time for Boris Johnson to produce his own proposals in writing – if they exist. If no proposals are received by the end of September, then it’s over.”

“我们都同意,鲍里斯·约翰逊现在是时候白纸黑字地提出自己的提案——如果真的有的话。而在九月底之前我们还没有收到提案的话,就没得谈了。”

A deadline of 30 September would be highly problematic for the prime minister as it falls on the eve of the Conservative party conference, and it remains to be seen whether the EU will stick to the threat.

9月的截止日期或许会令首相大为头疼,因为那时已经临近保守党大会了,而欧盟会否坚持这一要求还不明朗。

Johnson would be wary of showing his hand at such a sensitive point given the potentially negative reaction by his party to any movement towards the EU’s demands on the backstop.

在这样一个敏感时期,考虑到他的党派对任何针对欧盟的后备案要求的行动可能做出的负面反应,鲍里斯·约翰逊将会审慎地运用他的手段。

Rinne said that he intended to speak to the European council president, Donald Tusk, and Johnson to discuss the need for swift action from the UK.

林内称他意在直接与欧洲理事会主席唐纳德·塔斯克对话,并与约翰逊讨论英国迅速行动的必要性。

EU leaders want a clear run for negotiations before a summit on 17 October so that they need not engage in detailed talks on the issue and can nod through any deal.

欧盟的领导人们希望在10月17日的峰会前进行一次明确的谈判,这样他们就不必就此问题进行详细的谈判,也可以通过任何协议。

Johnson spoke to the European commission president, Jean-Claude Juncker, by phone on Wednesday afternoon. A Downing Street spokesperson said they discussed their continued determination to reach a deal.

约翰逊周三下午与欧盟委员会主席让-克洛德·容克通了电话。唐宁街发言人表示,他们讨论了达成协议的坚定决心。

They also discussed their lunch meeting in Luxembourg on Monday, which was described as “positive and constructive” during the call.

他们还讨论了周一在卢森堡的午餐会,在通话中他们将之形容为“积极而有建设性的”。

It emerged earlier in the day that during the lunch meeting Johnson had expressed surprise to his advisers when he was informed about the scale of checks that would still be needed on the island of Ireland under a plan the government has mooted for the Irish border.

当天早些时候,在午餐会上,约翰逊向他的顾问们表达了惊讶之情,当时他被告知,根据政府就爱尔兰边境提出的计划,爱尔兰岛仍需要进行大规模检查。

The two-hour lunch preceded Johnson’s humiliation at the hands of Luxembourg’s prime minister, Xavier Bettel, when he failed to attend a press conference due to anti-Brexit protests.

这次两个小时的午餐会发生于约翰逊羞辱卢森堡首相泽维尔·贝特尔之前,他因反对英国脱欧而未能参加记者会。

EU officials said the advantage for them had been in being able to spell out the problems directly to the prime minister. “It seems to have helped the penny drop,” said one diplomatic source. 

欧盟官员表示,他们的优势在于能够直接向首相解释这些问题。一位外交消息人士表示:“这似乎加速了英镑的贬值。”

During talks with Juncker and the EU’s chief negotiator, Michel Barnier, the prime minister was shown in detail how allowing Northern Ireland to stick to common EU rules on food and livestock, known as sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS),would still fail to avoid checks on the vast majority of goods that cross the Irish border.

在与容克和欧盟首席谈判代表米歇尔·巴尼耶谈会谈时,英国首相详细了解到即使允许北爱尔兰奉行欧盟关于食品和牲畜的共同规则,即卫生和植物检疫措施(SPS),也仍然无法避免对绝大多数越过爱尔兰边境的货物的检查。

Downing Street has described as “nonsense” a report in the Financial Times that Johnson turned to his chief negotiator, David Frost, and the Brexit secretary, Stephen Barclay, and said: “So you’re telling me the SPS plan doesn’t solve the customs problem?”

唐宁街认为《金融时报》上称约翰逊求助于首席谈判代表大卫·弗罗斯特和英国退出欧盟事务卿斯蒂芬·巴克利的报道是“无稽之谈”,并表示:“所以你是在告诉我SPS计划不能解决海关问题?”

But senior EU sources confirmed that Johnson had expressed surprise during the lunch at the complexity of the situation, and that it appeared to have been a “bit of a reality check to hear it from EU officials”.

但欧盟高级消息人士证实,约翰逊在午餐时对局势的复杂性表示惊讶,并表示“从欧盟官员那里听到这一消息似乎更现实些。”

Sources said it was not the case that Johnson had failed to understand the role of the shared customs territory in the Irish backstop but that it was the scale of checks that would still be necessary without such an arrangement that appeared to hit home.

消息来源称,约翰逊并非不理解共享关税区在爱尔兰后备案中的作用,但如果没有这种直击核心的安排,大规模检查似乎仍是有必要的。

A second EU diplomat confirmed: “When the commission explained the technical challenges and enduring need for customs checks under the UK proposals, Johnson expressed surprise in the direction of his advisers.”

另一名欧盟外交官证实:“当欧盟委员会说明英国提出的关检的技术挑战和长期需求时,约翰逊向他的顾问们表示惊讶。”

In his address to the European parliament on Wednesday, Juncker hinted at the problems that remained. “I have no emotional attachment to the backstop,” he said of his talks with Johnson. “But I made clear that I do have an intimate commitment to its objectives.”

在周三对欧洲议会的讲话中,容克暗示了仍然存在的问题。“我对后备计划并不带有感情,”他谈到与约翰逊的谈话时说,“但我明确表示,我个人对此负有义务。”

Given the wide gap between the two sides, Juncker also expressed doubts about the possibility that a mutually agreeable replacement for the Irish backstop would be agreed before 31 October when Johnson has said the UK will leave, “do or die”.

考虑到两方之间的巨大鸿沟,容克也表达了对能否在10月31日前达成一份双方都认可的爱尔兰后备案替代方案的怀疑,毕竟约翰逊已经声明英国将在那一天脱离欧盟,“不成功便成仁”。

The UK said after the Juncker lunch that it would now move to negotiating daily with the EU rather than twice a week but a spokeswoman for the European commission told reporters on Wednesday that there had been no such request as yet.

在与容克的午餐会后,英国称将每日都与欧盟进行谈判,而非以往的一周两次;但欧洲委员会的一位女发言人告诉记者,截至周三,尚未收到此项请求。

She said: “We have said and reconfirm that we are fully available to meet 24/7 seven days a week as soon as the UK would like to meet us. But for the moment I do not have any new announcements or scheduling to pass on to you today.”

她说:“我们已多次声明,只要英国愿意与我们会见,我们任何时候都可奉陪。但目前我没有任何新的声明或日程安排要传达。”

Barnier had suggested that there was a lack of seriousness in the UK’s approach during his own statement to the European parliament.

在巴尼尔在欧洲议会的发言中,他暗示英国的处事方法不够严谨。

“Almost three years after the British referendum, ladies and gentlemen, it is certainly not a question of pretending to negotiate,” he told MEPs.

“女士们、先生们,英国脱欧公投已经过去快三年了,这根本不是对谈判虚与委蛇的问题。”他向议员们宣称。

Meanwhile, Johnson had his first conversation with the president of the European parliament, David Sassoli, on Wednesday. Sassoli is understood to have told the prime minister that any agreement would need to be agreed by both the Commons and the EU’s parliament, and “robust debate and parliamentary scrutiny is essential”, in a thinly veiled criticism of the decision to prorogue Westminster.

与此同时,在周三,约翰逊首次与欧洲议会议长大卫·萨索里会谈。据悉,萨索里已告诫首相,任何协议都须经英国下议院和欧洲议会同意,“雄辩滔滔和谨言慎行都是必要的,”且几乎不加掩饰地批评了他令英国议会休会的决定。

Q&A: What is a Northern Ireland-only backstop?

北爱尔兰限定后备案是什么?

The British government’s version of Brexit involves the UK ultimately leaving the single market and customs union, requiring the return of a range of checks on goods crossing the border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. The “backstop” is intended as a standstill placeholder to ensure such checks do not have to be imposed between Brexit happening with a deal, and the start of a new free trade agreement yet to be negotiated between the UK and the EU.

英国政府版本的脱欧协议包括最终脱离欧盟这一单一市场和关税同盟和要求对越过北爱尔兰和爱尔兰共和国边境的货物重启一系列检查。这一“后备案”旨在预防万一,以确保在英国与欧盟之间达成协议脱欧和开始新的自由贸易协定之前的时间段内不必实施此类检查。

Theresa May's withdrawal agreement proposed keeping the whole of the UK in a shared customs territory with the EU during this period. An alternative idea involves only Northern Ireland staying in the EU’s customs territory. That would place a customs border in the Irish Sea. May described it as a threat to the constitutional integrity of the UK, but the new prime minister, Boris Johnson, has opened the current talks by proposing an all-Ireland agri-food zone. The suggestion is that he will seek to quietly build on that with further NI-only arrangements.

特蕾莎·梅的脱欧协议提议在此期间将整个英国与欧盟维持在一共同关税区内。另一个想法是只让北爱尔兰留在欧盟关税区。这将在爱尔兰海产生一个海关关境。梅称这是对英国宪法完整性的威胁,但新首相鲍里斯·约翰逊提议建立全爱尔兰农产品-食品区,从而开启了当前的对话。目前的迹象表明,他将寻求在此基础上,通过进一步的只针对北爱尔兰的措施悄悄建立这一特区。

Given an NI-only backstop was an EU proposal in the first place, the U-turn would be warmly welcomed in Brussels, although attempts to give the Northern Ireland assembly a veto on its continuation would not be acceptable, and the DUP would be unlikely to support the prime minister in such a move in parliament.

由于北爱后备案一开始是欧盟的提案,这一反转在布鲁塞尔大受欢迎,即使试图让北爱尔兰议会否决其存续是不可接受的,而在议会中,北爱尔兰民主统一党也未必会在这种动议下支持首相。

If there is a no-deal Brexit, then there is no backstop.

如果英国无协议脱欧,就不会有什么后备案了。

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