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《难以置信》:这部惊人的真实罪案剧做到了以受害人为先

'Unbelievable' Review: Netflix's Sensitive & Stunning True Crime Series Puts Survivors First
《难以置信》:这部惊人的真实罪案剧做到了以受害人为先
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2019-09-18 00:45
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《难以置信》:这部惊人的真实罪案剧做到了以受害人为先

Content Warning: This post contains references to and descriptions of sexual assault and rape. 

内容警告:本文含有与性侵相关的引用和描述

In the early hours of a March morning in 2008, an 18-year-old woman in Lynnwood, Washington, was awakened by a stranger in her apartment. Holding her at knifepoint, he tied her up, raped her for hours, photographed her, and said that if she went to the police, he would post the photographs online. Then he left.

2008年3月的一个清晨,华盛顿州林伍德市,一个18岁的女孩被出现在她卧室里的陌生人惊醒。他持刀胁迫她,将她绑起来,强 暴了她数小时,拍下了她的照片,并威胁她:如果报警,他将会将这些照片发上网。然后他离开了。

I begin my review of Netflix’s new limited series Unbelievable with this harrowing account in order to make one thing as clear as possible: this really happened. Not just in the show, but in real life. It was the crime at the center of the Pulitzer Prize-winning ProPublica article “An Unbelievable Story of Rape,” and the This American Life episode “Anatomy of Doubt,” both of which served as the basis for Unbelievable. Both the article and the podcast state plainly, from the beginning, that whether the crime they’ll be discussing really occurred is not up for debate — it definitely did. Many individuals in the victim’s life — in every version of the story, she goes by the name of Marie — may not have believed her, but the people telling her story want us to know that they do and that we should.

在写下Netflix这部新迷你剧《难以置信》的剧评时,我之所以用这个令人心痛的故事作为开头,是为了尽可能清楚地表达一个事实:它是真实发生过的事。并不仅仅在剧中,也在现实生活中发生过。ProPublica一篇普利策获奖文章《一桩难以置信的强 奸案》,以及播客节目《美国生活》其中一集《剖析怀疑》所描述的一起罪案,它们都是《难以置信》的故事原型。文章和播客都从一开头就清楚地表明:关于他们将要讨论的罪案是否真的发生过,答案是毫无疑问的——它的确发生过。受害人身边的许多人——在该事件的每个版本中,她都使用了玛丽这个名字——都不相信她,但这些讲述她的故事的人希望我们能了解,他们相信她,我们也应该相信。

unbelievable-kaitlyn-dever

Image via Netflix

图片来源 Netflix

The same is true of Unbelievable, a true-crime drama that is — somewhat ironically — built on a rock-solid foundation of belief. The first episode opens on Marie (Kaitlyn Dever) during the hours immediately following her attack, as she and her former foster mom, Judith (Elizabeth Marvel), wait for the police to arrive. Almost immediately, something feels off. Marie is asked to describe her attack over and over to a parade of strangers with notepads and cameras. Everything is very official, and we know the police and the medical personnel are “just doing their jobs,” but there’s something in the repetition and the cool sterility of the process that feels almost cruel. It’s easy to understand, watching Marie being interrogated, examined, and photographed, why so many victims of sexual assault choose not to report their attack.

《难以置信》也是一样,它是一部建立在坚定信仰的基础上的——有几分讽刺的——真实罪案剧。第一集的开端,是玛丽(演员凯特琳·德芙)被性侵之后的几个小时,她和曾经的寄养家庭的母亲朱迪斯(演员伊丽莎白·马维尔)一起等待着警察的到来。几乎紧接着,有些事感觉不对劲起来。玛丽在一拨又一拨拿着相机、记事本的陌生人的要求下,一次又一次重复叙述自己被性侵的过程。一切都很官方,我们也知道这些警察和医护人员都“只是在履行他们的职责”,但这不断重复和冷静无感的过程,让人感觉到几近残忍。看着玛丽被审问、检查、拍照,你很轻易就能够理解 ,为什么有那么多性侵受害人选择不报警。

Still, despite all the relentless poking and prodding of Marie’s body and story, and the rising doubt from both the police and the people who are supposed to serve as her support system (by the end of the first episode, no one will believe her), Unbelievable makes it clear that she’s telling the truth. It’s evident in the brief flashbacks of the assault that are peppered throughout the series, in the way the camera frames Dever during moments when Marie’s story is being challenged, and in the consistency between Marie’s account and the eventual accounts of the rapist’s other victims. Unbelievable’s tale unfolds over a tight 385 minutes, and there’s not a single one in which we’re asked to question the veracity of Marie’s account.

尽管经历了没完没了的检查:检查她的身体,检查她描述的经历,尽管警察和本该支持她的人都开始产生怀疑(到第一集结尾时,没有一个人愿意相信她),《难以置信》清楚地表明了她所说的一切都是事实。有性侵过程像碎片般贯穿全剧不断闪回;有每当玛丽的故事被人质疑,镜头中她的反应;有玛丽和其他性侵受害人所描述的内容的一致性。《难以置信》全剧用紧凑的385分钟讲完了故事,其中没有一分钟会让人质疑玛丽所描述的一切的真实性。

In episode two, the series jumps ahead three years and shifts locations to Colorado, where we meet Karen Duvall (Merritt Wever) and Grace Rasmussen (Toni Collette), based on real-life detectives Stacy Galbraith and Edna Hendershot. Duvall and Rasmussen work in different precincts but are brought together by the similarities in the rape cases they’re investigating. Duvall’s case: a 22-year-old woman named Amber (Danielle Macdonald) in Golden. Rasmussen’s: a woman in her late 50s named Sarah (Vanessa Bell Calloway) in Westminster. It’s not standard procedure for officers from different precincts to share the details of their cases, and it’s a fluke that brings these two together — Duvall’s husband works with Rasmussen, and recognized some of the details of her case in his wife’s.

第二集,时间线往后跳了三年,地点移到了科罗拉多,我们见到了另外两位女主角:凯伦·杜瓦(演员梅里特·韦弗)和格蕾丝·拉斯姆森(托妮·柯莱特)。她们的人物原型是现实中破获此案的两位警探:斯黛茜·加尔布雷斯和艾德娜·亨德肖特。杜瓦和拉斯姆森在不同地区的警局工作,但由于她们各自调查的强 奸案之间的相似之处,她们开始了合作。杜瓦的案件受害人是22岁的安珀(演员丹妮尔·麦克唐纳),案发地在戈尔登市。拉斯姆森的案件受害人是近60岁的莎拉(演员瓦妮莎-贝尔·卡罗维),案发地在威斯敏斯特。不同地区的警官通常并不会互相交流案件的细节,将她们两人联系起来的是纯粹的运气——杜瓦的先生与拉斯姆森是同事,是他发现了这两件案子中一些相似的细节。

unbelievable-toni-collette

Image via Netflix

图片来自 Netflix

On paper, Duvall and Rasmussen don’t have much in common aside from their chosen profession. Duvall is soft-spoken and gentle while Rasmussen is direct and abrasive. Duvall is patient; Rasmussen is constantly on the move. Duvall is young and optimistic; Rasmussen is seasoned and jaded. Duvall is a person of faith; Rasmussen believes in hard work and the power of a strong drink.

理论上说,杜瓦和拉斯姆森两人并没有什么共同点,除了她们都从事同一职业。杜瓦言行温和,拉斯姆森粗放直接;杜瓦富有耐心,拉斯姆森雷厉风行;杜瓦年轻而乐观,拉斯姆森经验丰富,心态也更疲倦。杜瓦有她的宗教信仰,拉斯姆森只信勤奋工作和酒精的力量。

Yet when it comes to how they interact with the victims of their respective cases, similarities shine through. Repeatedly, they assure the women that they don’t need to explain how they’re processing their trauma or apologize for not reacting in a typically expected way. They tell them that it’s okay to not remember much, or to remember everything. To seek medical attention, or not. To want to talk about their attack, or try to put it behind them and move on.

但当她们在各自的案件中与受害人互动时,她们两人的共同之处就显现了出来。

她们一次又一次地向受害人保证,不需要解释自己是如何处理创伤的,更不需要因为没有做出别人预期中的反应而道歉。她们让受害人知道,无论是对事件没有什么记忆,还是记得起所有细节,都没有关系。是否去接受医疗救助、是想谈谈她们经历的伤害,还是想忘掉一切重新开始,都是她们自己的选择。

In one early scene, after we’ve watched Duvall question Amber with the gentleness and empathy that was so painfully absent from Marie’s experience, the two detectives go talk to Sarah together. Rasmussen tells Duvall not to speak, but toward the end of the interview, picking at a thread Sarah loosened with one of her answers, Duvall asks Sarah a question about her assault, while in the background, Rasmussen quietly seethes. Sarah begins to apologize, explaining that she doesn’t remember many details, and Rasmussen quickly reassures her, telling her that it’s self-defense, that it’s common, that she shouldn’t apologize for doing what she had to do in order to feel safe.

在故事早期的场景里,我们见到杜瓦询问安珀时的温柔和同情心,令人痛心的是, 玛丽被警方询问时完全没有过这样的体验。此后两位女警探一起与莎拉谈话,拉斯姆森要求杜瓦不要提问,但在谈话的尾声,通过莎拉透露的一个细节,杜瓦问了她一个关于性侵过程的问题。与此同时,在一旁的拉斯姆森无声地产生了情绪变化。当莎拉开始道歉,解释说她并不记得多少细节,拉斯姆森立即安抚她,告诉她这是一种自我保护机制,这很常见,任何为了使自己感到安全而做出的反应,她都不必为此道歉。

Later, when the two detectives are alone, Rasmussen explains to Duvall that Sarah’s “psyche is held together by spit and a prayer,” and that being questioned about the rape by yet another stranger with a badge is going to do more harm than good. Watching the scene, realizing that even the kind, soft-spoken Duvall may have unintentionally traumatized Sarah further with her single well-intentioned question, it’s hard not to think about Marie having to describe her assault over and over, in painstaking detail, to a constantly rotating carousel of mostly male strangers who thought she was making it all up.

之后,当两位警探单独相处时,拉斯姆森向杜瓦解释说莎拉“处于精神极其脆弱的边缘”,这种时候有另一个陌生警官来询问她任何关于性侵过程的问题都会对她造成伤害。看完这一幕,意识到即使是言语温和的杜瓦,出于纯粹的好心,都有可能无意中再次伤害受害人。这很难不让人想到,玛丽曾被迫一遍又一遍重复她被性侵的经历,包括每一个痛苦的细节,面对着一大群轮流上阵问话的陌生人——其中大部分是男性,还在怀疑她所说的一切都是编造出来的谎言。

It’s this juxtaposition that Unbelievable does so well, especially as Duvall and Rasmussen’s case picks up steam. The two detectives are brilliant, spinning even the barest whispers of clues into solid gold leads, but with every break in the case, we always come back to Marie.  Remember, the show seems to urge as we watch her struggle to come up with the five-hundred dollars to pay her court fees after she’s charged with false reporting, or pedal her bike furiously away from clusters of prying reporters wanting to know why she lied, or weep helplessly into her pillow. Remember, not everyone gets a Duvall or a Rasmussen. Some have no one at all.

《难以置信》将这种并行叙事做得非常棒,尤其是当杜瓦和拉斯姆森的合作调查开始取得进展时。这两位警探十分出色,即使是最微弱的蛛丝马迹,都能从中查出重要线索。但每一次案情出现突破时,总会让我们再次回头关注玛丽。要记住,这部剧似乎在敦促着我们看她:看她在被控告报假案、苦苦想办法筹集500美元向法庭交罚款,看她猛踩自行车试图逃离一群想围堵她、问她为什么谎报性侵的记者,看她无助地抱着枕头哭。要记住,并非所有受害者都能遇见杜瓦或拉斯姆森这样的人。有些人根本没有任何人在意。

unbelievable-netflix-kaitlyn-dever

Image via Netflix

图片来自 Netflix

Marie, at least, has us. Unbelievable makes sure of that. We can’t help her, but we can believe her, and bear witness to the many injustices she is forced to suffer. We can remember, even in moments of triumph, that she is still out there, alone.

至少,在意玛丽的还有我们。《难以置信》确保了这一点。我们无法帮助她,但我们能够相信她,能够见证她被迫忍受了多少的不公。我们能够记住,即使在胜利的时刻,她仍然一个人孤身在外。

Equally hard to shake while watching Unbelievable is the knowledge that it is all based on a true story. If you read the ProPublica article or listen to the podcast before watching the series (I’d highly recommend both), it’s hard not to be blown away by how closely the dramatization hews to reality. Showrunner Susannah Grant, along with co-creators Michael Chabon and Ayelet Waldman have taken meticulous care to get Marie’s story right, to the point where it almost feels as though they’re attempting to personally atone for the three years when everyone else got it wrong.

在看剧时同样令人难以接受的是,我们知道它改编自一个真实的故事。在看这部剧之前,如果你曾读过ProPublica那篇文章,或听过有关此事的播客(两者我都强烈推荐),你很难不震惊于喜剧化的改编有多么贴近现实。制片人苏珊娜·格兰特,和联合制片迈克尔·夏邦、艾莱特·沃德曼一丝不苟地还原了玛丽的故事,真实到让人有种感觉:他们是想把玛丽经历过的那被所有人误解的三年,以自己的力量做出补偿。

And Unbelievable gets more right than just the facts of the case. Dever more than holds her own alongside Emmy winners Wever (Godless, Nurse Jackie) and Collette (United States of Tara; Collette also has a Golden Globe and an Oscar nomination under her belt), with all three leads delivering powerhouse performances that make it feel as though they’ve been embodying these characters for eight years rather than eight episodes. And the supporting cast — which, in addition to the actresses mentioned above, also includes Annaleigh Ashford, Dale Dickey, and Brooke Smith — is wall-to-wall outstanding.

而且,《难以置信》做到的还不止是还原了案件真相。两名艾美奖获得者——韦弗(《无神》、《护士当家》)和柯莱特(《倒错人生》,除此之外她还有一个金球提名,一个奥斯卡提名),以及在她们身边毫不逊色的德芙,三位女主角充满表现力的表演,让我们感到她们似乎已将这些人物演绎了八年,而不只是八集而已。除了上述主角之外,配角阵容——包括安娜莉·阿什福徳,戴尔·迪奇和布鲁克·史密斯——都彻底棒极了。

Further, while the writing is definitely elevated by the quality of the cast, the script is lean and moves along at a snappy pace, striking a perfect balance between exhilarating tension and deep despair, and explaining just enough of its technical procedural elements to never leave the audience behind. (In a clever workaround of a common procedural pitfall, Rasmussen’s office is given an inexperienced intern to ask what all the jargon means, so that more experienced characters are never forced to explain it to each other for the benefit of the audience.) If there’s any area where the script gets a little repetitive, it’s in how frequently it reminds us of the importance of listening to victims, how there’s no one right way to exist as a survivor of an assault, and how healing looks different for everyone — but that’s hardly a flaw. These are messages we could all probably stand to hear a little more frequently.

此外,虽然优秀的演员提升了整个故事,剧本本身也十分精干,以一种紧凑的节奏稳步推进,在激动人心的紧张气氛和深深的绝望之间构建起了完美的平衡,且在法证技术方面给出了足以让观众思路能跟上的解释。(对于常见的程序相关的难题,该剧提供了一个巧妙的解决方法。给拉斯姆森的办公室安排了一位缺乏经验的实习生,需要问道某些术语是什么意思,于是那些本应经验丰富的角色便不需要为了让观众看懂而强行互相解释。)如果有某些部分写得似乎有点重复,那是因为在向我们强调,聆听受害者的声音有多么重要、性侵受害者该如何表现是没有标准答案的,每个人疗愈自己的途径都不必相同——这也算不上剧本的缺点。这是我们都能够接受稍微多听几遍的信息。

unbelievable-merritt-weaver

Image via Netflix

图片来自 Netflix

When it comes to the rapes themselves, Unbelievable handles its potentially traumatizing subject matter with sensitivity and grace rarely found on TV (or anywhere, for that matter). While the screener that I received did (rightfully) include a content warning at the beginning of the first episode, and the series does include a number of split-second flashes of numerous assaults, they are never gratuitous or voyeuristic and are always from the victim’s point of view. Never once does the camera linger on exploitative images of female nudity; rather, it focuses on the women’s faces, their memories of their attacker, and occasionally a fleeting shot of a hand, foot, or stomach. Later, when the photos the attacker took of his victims are discovered, we’re told that they’re difficult to look at, but we never see them. We don’t have to. This is not a series about reliving trauma, but about healing from it.

当涉及到性侵行为本身,《难以置信》以在电视剧中(或者任何地方,就此而言)十分罕见的敏感和优雅处理了其潜在的创伤性话题。我看到的样片的确(正确地)在第一集开端标有内容警告,全剧中的确也含有不少碎片化的性侵场景闪回,它们从未无端出现,也从没有窥视的意图,而且都是通过受害人的视角展现。没有一个镜头为了刷尺度而停留在女性的裸 体画面上,反之,它关注的是女性的面孔,她们对袭击者的记忆,以及偶尔有些一闪而过的手、脚、腹部的镜头。后来,当性侵者拍下的众多受害人的照片被警方发现,剧中告诉我们这些照片让人不忍翻看,而观众从没有看到它们。我们不需要看到。这部剧的目的不是展示这些女性的创伤,而是关于治愈它。

★★★★★

★★★★★

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