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秘鲁纳斯卡谷地巨画的永恒之谜

The enduring mystery of Peru's Nazca Lines
秘鲁纳斯卡谷地巨画的永恒之谜
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2019-09-21 21:59
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秘鲁纳斯卡谷地巨画的永恒之谜

Nazca, Peru (CNN) — Peru is home to Machu Picchu, one of the seven modern wonders of the world, which draws travelers from around the globe.

秘鲁的纳斯卡——秘鲁是马丘比丘所在的国度,马丘比丘是世界七大现代奇迹之一,吸引着来自世界各地的游客。

But if you ask any Peruvian, Machu Picchu is on equal footing with the Nazca Lines, the desert landscape feature in the southern part of the country.

但如果你问任何一个秘鲁人,马丘比丘与纳斯卡线条是处于平等地位的,纳斯卡线条是秘鲁南部别具特色沙漠景观。

From simple lines to geometric and zoomorphic shapes, these indentations are spread across the arid plateau of Pampas de Jumana, some stretching to 1,200 feet (about as long as the Empire State Building).

从简单的线条到几何形状和动物形态,这些线条刻痕分布在干旱的潘帕斯—朱玛纳高原上,有些长达1200英尺(接近帝国大厦的长度)。

Even the national tourism board, PromPeru, uses shapes from the Nazca Lines on its official branding, with the P in Peru resembling one of the iconic swirls.

甚至连国家级旅游机构秘鲁旅游局也在其官方商标上使用了纳斯卡线条的形状,秘鲁这个单词中的P就像一个漩涡的形状。

Despite their major historical significance, the number of visitors to the Lines is dwarfed by the amount who visit Machu Picchu or the capital city of Lima every year.

尽管纳斯卡线条具有重要的历史意义与价值,但与每年游览马丘比丘或首都利马的游客人数相比,游览纳斯卡线条的游客还是少之又少。

That means that you can get a specialized experience without having to shell out a lot of money, and you don't need to spend several days hiking or getting accustomed to the altitude.

这意味着你不需要花很多钱就可以获得一种特殊的体验,你也不需要花几天时间去徒步旅行或适应海拔高度。

Here's what you need to know.

以下是你需要知道的。

These days, there are highways running past some of the Nazca Lines.

These days, there are highways running past some of the Nazca Lines.

现在,有一些高速公路经过纳斯卡线条。

LSP1982/iStockphoto/Getty Images

图片来自LSP1982/iStockphoto/Getty Images

So, what are they?

那么,纳斯卡线条究竟是什么呢?

Part of what makes the Nazca Lines so fascinating are their mysteriousness. Though these geoglyphs in the sand were made around the first century CE, they were virtually unknown until the early 1900s. Plenty of theories abounded about how the lines got there and what they meant.

纳斯卡线条之所以如此迷人,部分原因在于它们的神秘性。尽管这些沙漠上的地理符号是在公元1世纪左右形成的,但直到20世纪初,它们才被人们所知。关于这条线是如何形成的以及它的含义,有很多不同的说法。

The Lines became a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1994. At the time, UNESCO wrote, "They are the most outstanding group of geoglyphs anywhere in the world and are unmatched in its extent, magnitude, quantity, size, diversity and ancient tradition to any similar work in the world."

1994年,纳斯卡被联合国教科文组织列为世界文化遗产。当时,联合国教科文组织写道,“纳斯卡线条是世界上最杰出的一组地理符号,其范围、规模、数量、大小、多样性和古老的传统,是世界上其他同类文化遗存所无法比拟的。”

Different people see different things when they look at the Lines from the sky. Some of the formations have nicknames like The Sparrow, The Iguana and The Flower based on their shapes.

从空中向下俯瞰纳斯卡线条,不同的人能看到不同的东西。根据线条的形状,某些还有麻雀、鬣蜥、花朵等昵称。

Though the Incas are probably the most famous pre-Columbian group who lived in what is now Peru, the Nazca people had a thriving civilization in the desert for hundreds of years.

尽管印加人可能是前哥伦布时代就已生活在秘鲁最著名的族群,但纳斯卡人在沙漠中已经繁荣了数百年。

The most and least exciting thing about the Nazca Lines is their relative simplicity. The lines are not dug deep into the ground -- they're simply made from the top layer of desert sand and could probably be recreated by a group of people in a few days.

纳斯卡线条最令人兴奋和最不令人兴奋的地方是它们相对简单。这些线条并不是深深地埋在地下的——它们只是由沙漠表层的沙子构成,可能在几天内就能被一群人重新创造出来。

The relative ease of making them makes it even more impressive that the Nazca Lines have remained intact for so long, inured to the heavy winds.

制作它们相对容易,更令人印象深刻的是,纳斯卡线在如此长的时间里保持完整,经受住了大风的考验。

What do they mean?

纳斯卡线条有什么含义?

"For a long while, many generations of Peruvians and the international community grew up learning that these lines referred to astronomical cycles, like constellations and movements of the stars," explains Javier Puente, who is a specialist for the Incas Expert Guide travel company.

印加旅游公司的专家哈维尔·普恩特解释说:“在很长一段时间里,许多代秘鲁人以及国际社会逐渐了解到,这些线条指的是天文周期,比如星座和星体的运行。”

"But recent research has shown that that is not the case. They seem to be ritual-related and water-related."

但最近的研究表明事实并非如此。纳斯卡线条似乎和仪式、水相关。”

Puente, a Peru native who is now an associate professor of Latino/a History at Smith College in Massachusetts, has heard just about every Nazca Lines conspiracy theory out there.

普恩特是秘鲁人,现在是马萨诸塞州史密斯学院历史系的拉美裔副教授。

Despite environmental changes, the Lines have remained intact for more than 2,000 years.

Despite environmental changes, the Lines have remained intact for more than 2,000 years.

尽管环境发生了变化,但纳斯卡线条却完好无损地保留了2000多年。

Genry Bautista/picture alliance/Getty Images

图片源自Genry Bautista/picture alliance/Getty Images

"They were not drawn by aliens, that's for sure," he says. This theory has endured over time because many people believe some of the figures -- in particular, one nicknamed The Astronaut -- look anachronistic. But there was no fancy technology or intelligence needed to make them.

普恩特说:“可以肯定的是纳斯卡线条与外星人没什么关系,”这一理论之所以经久不衰,是因为很多人认为其中的一些人物形状——尤其是绰号“宇航员”的那个线条——虽看上去不合时宜。但创作这些线条并不需要花哨的技术或智慧。

For desert people, water is everything -- and many scholars believe that these pathways could have indicated where water sources were. It's also possible they were elements of a spiritual practice, with people walking the same paths over and over again to deepen the lines.

对于沙漠地区的人们来说,水就是一切——许多学者认为,这些线条可能表明了水源的位置。也有可能是一种精神实践,人们一次又一次地走同样的路来加深线条。

How can I see them?

怎样才能看到纳斯卡线条?

First, you'll need to get to Peru. Fly into Lima, then drive or take a bus 400 km (250 miles) down the Pan-American Highway to the beachside town of Paracas.

首先,你得去秘鲁。乘飞机到利马,然后乘公共汽车沿泛美高速公路行驶400公里(250英里)到海滨城市帕拉卡斯。

This sunny surfer community recently hosted the sailing events during the 2019 Pan-American Games, and there are several nice hotels, including a DoubleTree by Hilton resort.

帕拉卡斯是个阳光明媚的冲浪者社区。2019年泛美运动会期间在这里举行了帆船比赛,还有几家不错的酒店,包括希尔顿度假酒店旗下的一间双树酒店。

The best way to see the Nazca Lines is from the air. There are multiple daily flights, lasting about 75 minutes each, that depart from Pisco Airport.

从空中俯瞰是观赏纳斯卡线条的最佳方式。每天有多个航班从皮斯科机场起飞,每次航班约75分钟。

If you've ever gotten frustrated by a long security line at an airport, Pisco is about to be your new favorite place. Despite being fully equipped with all the modern technology of an airport, Pisco is basically empty except for these Nazca flights. You can sail through check-in and security in about two minutes if you walk slowly.

如果你曾经因为在机场排长队过安检而感到沮丧,皮斯科则不会带给你这种烦恼,你还会爱上这个地方。皮斯科机场装备有全套的现代化技术,但它基本上是个客流量很少的空机场,然而纳斯卡的航班是个例外。如果你走得慢一点,大约两分钟就可以检票通过安检。

The Nazca lived in the first centuries CE in what is now Peru.

The Nazca lived in the first centuries CE in what is now Peru.

公元一世纪,纳斯卡人生活在如今的秘鲁。

Genry Bautista/picture alliance/Getty Images

图片源于Genry Bautista/picture alliance/Getty Images

However, the ease of the airport is balanced out by the challenges of the flight itself. Only about 10 to 12 people can fit on each plane, and everyone is guaranteed a window seat, so travelers who are tall or need a lot of leg room will find themselves feeling pretty cramped.

机场很轻松,然而航班本身却具有挑战性。每架飞机只能坐10到12个人,而且每个人都有一个靠窗的座位,所以那些个子高或者需要很大腿部空间的旅客会感到非常拥挤。

The desert is notoriously windy around the Lines, and on a small plane you're more likely to feel every fluctuation. On top of that, the pilots will dive the plane low so that people on both sides can view different line formations and take pictures.

沙漠里的风是出了名的多,在小飞机上你更有可能感受到每一次波动。最重要的是,飞行员将飞机俯冲的很低,这样两边的人就可以看到不同的线条,也方便乘客拍照。

It feels a little bit like being on a stunt plane, and even the hardiest travelers will likely find themselves turning green. Invest heavily in your anti-nausea drug of choice before boarding, and look out for the plastic bags at every seat in case you need one.

这感觉有点像乘坐特技飞机,即使最勇敢的旅行者也会发现自己变怂了。在登机前,在防呕吐药物上投入大量资金,并注意每个座位上的塑料袋,以防你有所需要。

Still, surviving the flight will only make you feel more like an intrepid explorer once you're back on solid ground. Especially once you post the photos and have the bragging rights.

不过,在飞行中幸存下来,只会让你在回到坚实的地面后,感觉自己更像一个无畏的探险家。尤其是当你发布了这些照片并有了炫耀的权利。

If you're a nervous flier, there is another option -- an observation tower. You won't get to see as many of the formations, but it's a solid Plan B, and one with less barfing involved.

如果你是一名紧张的乘客,还有另一个选择——观察塔。你不会看到那么多的阵型,但这是一个坚实的替代性计划,其中涉及的呕吐较少。

Why should I go?

为什么要去纳斯卡?

Like so many natural wonders around the world, the Nazca Lines could easily disappear within our lifetimes. Despite surviving thousands of years, the Lines could be easily swept away in a significant rainstorm, a risk in the age of climate crisis.

就像世界上有那么多自然奇观一样,纳斯卡线条很容易在我们有生之年消失。尽管存在了数千年,但这些奇观很容易被一场暴雨毁灭,在如今这个气候危机的年代,这是一个值得注意的风险。

However, the biggest threat to the Nazca Lines are human beings.

然而,纳斯卡线条最大的威胁是人类。

"The danger is urbanization, road construction and modernity," says Puente. "The Nazca Lines are more threatened from that than any natural reason."

普恩特说:“纳斯卡受到的危险在于城市化、道路建设和现代化,这些是任何自然原因都无法比拟的威胁。”

Perhaps it's that impermanence -- not the symbolism -- that truly makes the Nazca Lines so magical.

也许正是这种无常——而自身的非象征意义——让纳斯卡线条如此神奇。

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