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中国引领移动“超级应用”崛起

China Leads Rise Of Mobile 'Super Apps'
中国引领移动“超级应用”崛起
959字
2019-09-11 12:26
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中国引领移动“超级应用”崛起

Highlights

要点

Mobile users in Asia-Pacific are warming up to the idea of doing multiple, often seemingly unrelated functions, with just a single "super app."

亚太地区的手机用户正在逐渐接受利用一个“超级应用程序”来实现多种功能的想法,这些功能可能无关。

It is common for single-function apps to start with mobile money before branching out to other services, just as WeChat did with WeChat Pay in China.

单功能应用程序通常先从移动支付开始,而后再扩展到其他服务,如同微信在中国()对微信支付(WeChat Pay)所做的那样。

Although the idea of super apps is not novel to Western companies, factors such as anti-trust regulation, privacy and cultural differences shed some doubt on the success of super apps in North America and Europe.

尽管超级应用的概念对西方公司来说并不新鲜,但反垄断监管、隐私和文化差异等因素,让人们对超级应用在北美和欧洲的成功产生了一些怀疑。

The following post comes from Kagan, a research group within S&P Global Market Intelligence.

以下文章来自标准普尔全球市场情报(S&P Global Market Intelligence)的研究机构Kagan。

To learn more about our TMT (Technology, Media & Telecommunications) products and/or research, please request a demo.

要了解更多关于我们的TMT(技术、媒体和电信)产品和/或研究,请要求演示。

While mobile users elsewhere use dedicated apps for specific tasks, mobile users in the Asia-Pacific region are accustomed to doing multiple, often seemingly unrelated functions, with just a single "super app."

虽然其他地方的手机用户使用专用的应用程序来完成特定的任务,但亚太地区的手机用户习惯于使用一个“超级应用程序”来完成多个看似无关的功能。

Tencent Holdings Ltd.'s WeChat is a classic example of a super app. Aside from its basic function of sending messages, WeChat can also be used to order food, hail taxis and book plane tickets — not because Tencent offers these services, but because it allows third-party companies to create apps within WeChat.

腾讯控股有限公司(Tencent Holdings Ltd .)一个超级应用的微信是一个典型的例子。除了发送消息的基本功能,微信还可以用于食品,冰雹出租车和预订机票,不是因为腾讯提供了这些服务,而是因为它允许第三方公司在微信中创建的应用程序。

Officially called Mini Programs in China, these "apps within an app" allow mobile users to use services of third-party companies without downloading separate apps. WeChat now acts like its own operating system, as its Mini-Program inventory of over 1 million as of November 2018 rivals Apple Inc.'s 2.2 million iOS apps and Google LLC's 3.3 million Android apps.

这些在中国被正式称为“迷你程序”的“应用程序内的应用程序”允许移动用户使用第三方公司的服务,而无需下载单独的应用程序。微信现在就像它自己的操作系统一样,截至2018年11月,它拥有超过100万的迷你程序库存,与苹果公司(Apple Inc.)的220万iOS应用程序和谷歌LLC的330万Android应用程序形成竞争。

Ant Financial's Alipay is WeChat's closest competitor, boasting over 120,000 Mini Programs as of January 2019. Other successful super apps in China using the Mini Program model include Baidu, Meituan Dianping and Taobao's Tmall.

蚂蚁金服的支付宝是微信最接近的竞争对手,截至2019年1月,支付宝拥有超过12万个迷你程序。在中国,其他使用Mini程序模式的成功超级应用包括百度、美团点评和淘宝的天猫。

Mobile money as secret ingredient for super apps

超级应用VS 传统应用

独立的应用程序

一个单一的应用程序与单一的主要功能

应用程序套件

一组具有相关功能和相互集成能力的应用程序,通常由同一家公司拥有

示例:G Suite、Microsoft 365、Adobe Creative Suite

超级应用

一个具有多种功能的单一应用程序,通常由同一家公司的支付系统提供便利

例子:Go-Jek, Grab, LINE, KakaoTalk, Flipkart, Paytm

超级app +第三方迷你程序

一个单一的应用程序,允许第三方公司开发轻量级的“迷你程序”,可以在应用程序内运行,通常由应用程序公司的支付系统提供便利

例如:微信支付宝、百度、美团、天猫

数据汇编于2019年7月。

制作:Julber Osio;Shirtey Gil

来源:行业数据

媒体研究集团Kagan是标准普尔全球市场情报(S&P Global Market Intelligence)旗下TMT部门的成员。

2019年S&PGlobal市场情报。保留所有权利。

手机钱包是超级应用的秘密组成部分

Integral to the success of WeChat and Alipay's Mini Programs are the native mobile payments systems WeChat Pay and Alipay. These in-app mobile payment systems allowed Tencent and Ant Financial to ink partnerships with various businesses and merchants to develop more use cases for the app.

微信和支付宝的迷你程序的成功离不开微信支付和支付宝等本地移动支付系统。这些应用内移动支付系统使得腾讯和蚂蚁金服能够与各种企业和商户建立合作关系,为该应用开发更多的用例。

Wave Money CEO Brad Jones said in a panel at MWC Shanghai 2019 that it is common for single-function apps to start with mobile money before branching out to other services. "When you add mobile money, you open up more monetization opportunities," according to Jones.

Wave Money首席执行官布拉德·琼斯在2019年上海世界移动通信大会上表示,单功能应用程序在扩展到其他服务之前先从移动支付开始是很常见的。琼斯表示:“当增加移动资金时,你就打开了更多的赚钱机会。”

Japan's LINE and South Korea's KakaoTalk both started out as messaging apps, not as mobile payment apps. Both eventually branched out to other services including LINE Pay in December 2014 and KakaoPay in September 2014.

日本的LINE和韩国的KakaoTalk最初都是作为消息应用程序开发的,而不是作为移动支付应用程序。两家公司最终都将业务拓展到其他服务领域,包括2014年12月的LINE支付和2014年9月的Kakao支付。

Indonesia's GO-JEK and Singapore's Grab — the biggest super apps in Southeast Asia — follow this model of developing their own services and packaging all of them in one app. Initially starting as ride-hailing apps, Go-Jek and Grab expanded their own branded services — such as Go-Send, Go-Massage, Grab Food and Grab Pet — through their mobile payments systems Go-Pay and GrabPay.

印尼GO-JEK和新加坡的Grab——东南亚最大的超级应用遵循这种模式发展自己的服务和并将其打包在一个应用程序内。最初开始网约车应用,GO-JEK和Grab扩大自己的品牌服务——例如Go-送达、 Go-信息,Grab食物和Grab宠物——通过他们的移动支付系统Go-支付和Grab支付。

India is another hot spot for super apps, where companies such as Paytm Mobile Solutions Pvt. Ltd. and Flipkart India Private Ltd.dominate the scene. Reliance Jio Infocomm Ltd., the disruptive mobile operator that redefined India's mobile landscape through its 4G offerings, is also set to launch its own super app with over 100 services.

印度是超级应用程序的另一个热点,Paytm移动解决方案有限公司和Flipkart印度私人有限公司等公司主导了这一领域。Reliance Jio 信息通信有限公司是一家颠覆性的移动运营商,通过4G服务重新定义了印度的移动市场格局。

Are super apps an Asia-Pacific-only phenomenon?

超级应用是亚太地区独有的现象吗?

For most emerging markets in the Asia-Pacific region, including China, people access the internet primarily through their mobile phones. As smartphone penetration grew alongside mobile internet penetration, mobile phones developed more use cases and became more embedded in people's daily lives. Connectivity-based solutions focused on mobile phones as the main platform. This "mobile-first" culture meant that app developers had to find a way to capture a variety of services in the simplest way possible.

对于包括中国在内的亚太地区大多数新兴市场,人们主要通过手机上网。随着智能手机的普及和移动互联网的普及,手机开发了更多的用例,并越来越深入到人们的日常生活中。基于连接的解决方案主要以手机为平台。这种“移动优先”的文化意味着应用程序开发人员必须找到一种以最简单的方式获取各种服务的方法。

In most developed countries, widespread internet availability preceded smartphone adoption, which meant connectivity-based solutions were first developed on other platforms, such as computers. This culture of using dedicated software to perform specific tasks was carried on to the era of smartphone apps.

在大多数发达国家,互联网的普及早于智能手机的普及,这意味着基于连接的解决方案首先是在其他平台如电脑上开发的。这种使用专用软件执行特定任务的文化延续到了智能手机应用程序的时代。

Still, the idea of super apps is not novel to Western companies. As early as May 2016, Google revealed Android Instant Apps, which allows users to access third-party content through a simple Google search. Similarly, Facebook Inc. introduced Instant Games in November 2016, allowing users to play a light version of third-party games through the Messenger app.

不过,超级应用程序的概念对西方公司来说并不新鲜。早在2016年5月,谷歌就发布了Android Instant Apps,用户可以通过简单的谷歌搜索访问第三方内容。类似地,Facebook Inc.在2016年11月推出了即时游戏,允许用户通过Messenger应用程序玩一个轻版本的第三方游戏。

However, these features never took center stage the same way WeChat's mini-programs did. Super apps succeeded in China because they are sheltered in a market where foreign competitors like Google and Facebook are blocked by the government. Tencent and Ant Financial sought to fill the vacuum left by these giants through an aggressive series of acquisitions and partnerships with local companies — something that might raise red flags for antitrust regulators in North America and Europe.

然而,这些功能从来没有像微信的迷你程序那样占据中心位置。超级应用在中国获得成功,是因为它们在市场上受到了保护,政府屏蔽了谷歌和Facebook等外国竞争对。腾讯(Tencent)和蚂蚁金服(Ant Financial)试图通过一系列积极的收购和与本土企业的合作来填补这些巨头留下的空白——这可能会给北美和欧洲的反垄断监管机构敲响警钟。

Privacy is another issue that is more pronounced and regulated in the West compared to the Asia-Pacific region. Incorporating multiple services in one app raises concerns about handling, storage and use of personal data, for which Facebook and Google are already under scrutiny.

与亚太地区相比,在西方,隐私是另一个更为突出和受到监管的问题。将多个服务整合到一个应用程序中,引发了人们对处理、存储和使用个人数据的担忧,Facebook和谷歌已经在对这些数据进行审查。

Cultural differences are also huge deterrents to the super app model on a global scale. Super apps work in pocketed regions of China, India and Southeast Asia because of relatively similar cultures within each sub-region. Uber Technologies Inc. acknowledged this problem as it expanded to emerging markets. Its solution was not to incorporate more functions in its app, but to break it into separate, less cluttered apps such as Uber Lite in India and Uber Bus in Egypt.

文化差异也是超级应用模式在全球范围内的巨大障碍。超级应用程序在中国、印度和东南亚等收入较低的地区运行,因为这些地区的文化相对相似。优步(Uber Technologies Inc.)在向新兴市场扩张的过程中承认了这个问题。它的解决方案不是在应用程序中加入更多功能,而是将其拆分为独立的、不那么杂乱的应用程序,比如印度的Uber Lite和埃及的Uber Bus。

Nonetheless, Western companies seem keen on experimenting with the super app model. In May 2019, Facebook announced it would blend the functions of the Facebook app, Messenger, WhatsApp and Instagram to create a super app. In the same month, Google said it was testing its mini-apps feature in the Search and Google Assistant apps.

尽管如此,西方公司似乎热衷于试验超级应用程序模式。2019年5月,Facebook宣布将融合Facebook应用、Messenger、WhatsApp和Instagram的功能,打造一款超级应用。同年5月,谷歌表示正在测试其在搜索和谷歌助手应用中的迷你应用功能。

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