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我们迫切需要将教育和工作结合起来

We Desperately Need a Merger between Education and Work
我们迫切需要将教育和工作结合起来
941字
2019-09-17 16:01
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我们迫切需要将教育和工作结合起来

This essay is a part of the Scientific American & Macmillan Learning STEM Summit. The STEM Summit is an annual event that attracts diverse stakeholders, ranging from teachers, policy makers, journalists, entrepreneurs, and students. The theme of the 2019 Summit is “The Future of Work,”and will explore critical questions such as: What are we doing to prepare students for careers in our automated future? What skills—both “hard” and “soft”—will students need to thrive in the “4th Industrial Revolution”? And what strategies, tools and technologies will best help students achieve that success? You can learn more about the annual event here, and view the livestream of this year’s Summit here on Thursday, September 26th.

本文是科学美国人&麦克米伦学习科学STEM峰会的一部分。STEM峰会是一项年度活动,吸引了不同的利益相关者前来,包括教师、政策制定者、记者、企业家和学生。2019年峰会的主题是“工作的未来”,并将探讨一些关键问题,比如:我们正在做些什么,让学生为我们自动化的未来的职业生涯做好准备?在“第四次工业革命”中,学生们需要具备哪些“硬”技能和“软”技能才能茁壮成长?什么样的策略、工具和技术最能帮助学生取得成功?你可以在这里了解更多关于年度活动的信息,并在9月26日周四观看今年峰会的直播。

Over the past half-century, we’ve been incredibly effective at treating school and college as distinct elements from work and a career. Nothing is more indicative of this trend than our belief, inherent in the system we’ve designed, that the best human development arises from being in school for 13 to 17 years and then going to work for the next 45 years or so. This belief, and the system that perpetuates it, has probably never worked very well. And it’s entirely broken in today’s globally competitive and rapidly changing marketplace.

在过去的半个世纪里,我们非常有效地把学校和大学作为工作和职业的不同部分。没有什么比我们的信念更能说明这一趋势了,在我们设计的系统中固有的信念是,人类最好的发展来自于在学校学习13到17年,然后再去工作45年左右。这种信念,以及延续这种信念的体制,可能从来没有很好地运作过。在当今全球竞争激烈、瞬息万变的市场中,它完全被打破了。

Right now, in the U.S., we have more jobs open than people looking for work. So why aren’t we at 100 percent employment? And why do we see fresh reports suggesting that 40 percent or more of recent college graduates are underemployed or unemployed? There are a number answers, including the decreasing mobility of the U.S. population; a misalignment between what’s being taught in school and what’s needed in the workplace; and marketplace dynamics where fast-growing jobs are outpacing our ability to train people for them. All of these factors point to a skills gap of one kind or another.

现在,在美国,我们有比正在找工作的人更多的工作机会。那么,为什么我们没有达到100%的就业率呢?为什么我们看到最新的报告显示,40%或更多的大学毕业生就业不足或失业?答案有很多,包括美国人口流动性下降;学校教育与职场需求之间的错位;快速增长的就业岗位正在超越我们培训人才的能力。所有这些因素都指向了这样或那样的技能差距。

With young people becoming a shrinking demographic, and with uncertainty about future immigration policy, U.S. employers must be ready to confront the notion that skills gaps won’t be solved the old way. There is no guarantee of new workers coming into the talent pipeline. Nor can we rely on the current education system to generate the right number of properly skilled graduates. Rather this situation will require retraining and “upskilling” existing talent and reengineering our current educational model to better prepare students for workplace success. This is not a one-time effort but should be thought of as an ongoing, lifelong process.

随着年轻人日益减少,以及未来移民政策的不确定性,美国雇主必须准备好面对这样一种观念,即技能差距不会以旧的方式得到解决。没有人能保证会有新的工人进入人才管道。我们也不能依靠现有的教育体系培养出适当数量的熟练毕业生。相反,这种情况将需要对现有人才进行再培训和“提升技能”,并重新设计我们当前的教育模式,以便更好地让学生为职场成功做好准备。这不是一次性的努力,而是一个持续终生的过程。

The remaking of existing talent will require much closer partnerships between education providers and employers, which will give rise to newmodels where employers become educators themselves (Amazon’s recent $700-million investment in talent development, almost entirely run by internal training in the company, is a good example). And our current education model will need to become substantially more applied and work-integrated.

对现有人才的改造将需要教育提供者和雇主之间建立更紧密的合作关系,这将催生新的模式,让雇主自己成为教育者(亚马逊最近对人才开发的7亿美元投资几乎完全由公司内部培训运营,就是一个很好的例子)。我们当前的教育模式将需要得到更多的应用和工作的整合。

There’s a pile of evidence about the most effective “education.” Summarized, it points to relationship-rich and work-integrated learning experiences. The most important aspects include working on long-term projects that take a semester or more to complete and having a job or internship where you can apply what you are learning in the classroom. Both experiences double the odds that graduates will be engaged and successful in their work later. And graduates who had an internship during college are twice as likely to have a good job waiting for them upon graduation, too. The problem is less than one third of college graduates have had such experiences. The fact that these things aren’t requirements for graduation is a true shame. But we can certainly do more—very quickly—to change all this.

有一堆关于最有效的“教育”的证据。总结起来,它指的是丰富的人际关系和工作整合的学习经验。最重要的方面包括从事需要一个学期或更长时间才能完成的长期项目,以及有一份工作或实习,在那里你可以应用你在课堂上学到的知识。这两种经历都使毕业生日后投入工作并取得成功的几率增加了一倍。在大学期间有实习经历的毕业生在毕业时找到一份好工作的可能性也是其他人的两倍。问题是,只有不到三分之一的大学毕业生有过这样的经历。事实上,这些东西并不是毕业的必要条件,这是是令人羞耻。但我们当然可以做得更多——非常快——来改变这一切。

What might a merger of education and work look like? Here’s a peek:

教育和工作的结合会是什么样子?让我们来了解一下:

  • Co-ops and “credegrees” will become staples of a college education across all majors, including the liberal arts. (Co-ops are typically semester-long work experiences pedagogically tied to the course of study in most cases. Credegrees refers to the combination of a bachelor’s degree with an industry-recognized credential or skill.) Liberal arts degrees will continue to thrive—but only in combination with work-related experiences and when blended with industry-relevant skills training. An art history major with a cybersecurity designation or data-science proficiency will be a white-hot graduate in the marketplace.
  • Employers will shift from being passive consumers of education (simply hiring graduates) to making education and training a core strategy of their success. This will include much more active and employer-designed partnerships with educational institutions. There will also be examples of employer-designed universities—created from the ground up to serve the critical upskilling needs of a large employer’s workforce. And if educational institutions and accreditors aren’t fast to evolve on this front, there will certainly be more examples where employers effectively replace educational institutions by creating their own fully operated education and training functions.
  • A “go pro early” model will become a very attractive pathway for both students and employers to enable hiring of highly talented students, directly out of high school, into full-time job and career tracks where a college degree is part of the package. In other words, instead of going to college to get a job, more people will seek a job to go to college. There are already many working adults who are pursuing their college degrees online; this will become much more prevalent for traditional-age students through a go pro early model.
  • 合作办学和“学士学位”将成为所有专业(包括文科)大学教育的主要内容。(合作项目通常是一个学期的工作经验,在大多数情况下,与学习课程有关。Credegree(学士学位)指学士学位与行业认可的证书或技能相结合的学位。文科学位将继续繁荣——但需要与工作相关的经验相结合,并与行业相关的技能培训相结合。拥有网络安全或数据科学专业学位的艺术史专业毕业生将在市场上炙手可热。
  • 雇主们将从被动的教育消费者(仅仅是雇佣毕业生)转变为把教育和培训作为他们成功的核心战略。这将包括与教育机构建立更加积极的、由雇主设计的合作关系。也会有雇主设计的大学的例子——从头开始创建,以满足大型雇主劳动力的关键技能提升需求。如果教育机构和资助者在这方面不能快速发展,肯定会有更多的例子表明,雇主通过创建自己完全运作的教育和培训职能,有效地取代了教育机构。
  • 对于学生和雇主来说,“提前就业”模式将成为一个非常有吸引力的途径,使他们能够直接从高中毕业,进入全职工作和职业轨道,其中大学学位是一揽子计划的一部分。换句话说,更多的人会为了上大学而找工作,而不是去完大学去找工作。现在已经有很多在职成年人在网上攻读大学学位;提前就业模式,这将在传统一代的学生中变得更加普遍。

In short, educational institutions will increasingly move toward applied and work-integrated models of learning. And employers will increasingly weave learning and retraining into the fabric of the workplace. This evolution can’t happen fast enough.

简而言之,教育机构将越来越倾向于应用和工作一体化的学习模式。雇主们将越来越多地把学习和再培训融入到工作场所的结构中。这种进化的速度还不够快。

The views expressed are those of the author(s) and are not necessarily those of Scientific American.

本文所表达的观点是作者的观点,不一定是《科学美国人》的观点。

ABOUT THE AUTHOR(S)

关于作者(们)

Brandon Busteed

布兰登·巴斯特德

Brandon Busteed is president of Kaplan University Partners.

布兰登·巴斯特德(Brandon Busteed)是卡普兰大学合作伙伴(Kaplan University Partners)的总裁。

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