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2019年,我们是否应该走向素食主义者之路?

Should we go vegan in 2019?
2019年,我们是否应该走向素食主义者之路?
1021字
2019-01-20 19:14
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2019年,我们是否应该走向素食主义者之路?

Seaweed grows quickly and is a core part of Japanese diets. As it can be grown at sea, it would solve the issue of dwindling land for crops. There are thousands of varieties that could be farmed and eaten.

海带生长期十分短,是日本人日常饮食的核心部分。因其种植、生长在海水中,它解决了种植农作物所需的土地日益减少的问题。世界上有无数不同种类的作物可种植供食用。

Wheat gluten

小麦面粉

Wheat gluten © Getty Images

Wheat gluten © Getty Images

麦麸

© Getty Images

Also known as wheat-meat, seitan or mock duck, wheat gluten is made from the ‘glue’ of wheat. As well as having a higher protein content than more well-known meat substitutes such as tofu, its chewy consistency also gives it a meaty texture. It’s thought to have been first produced by Buddhist monks who adhere to strict vegetarian diets, and it’s particularly popular in Asian cuisine. Although wheat gluten tastes bland on its own, it’s good at absorbing flavours.

小麦麸质也被称为小麦肉、黄褐色或假鸭,是由小麦的“胶”制成的。除了比豆腐等知名肉类替代品具有更高的蛋白质含量外,它的咀嚼一致性也使它具有肉感。它最初被认为是由佛教僧侣制作的,他们坚持严格的素食饮食,而且它在亚洲菜肴中特别受欢迎。虽然小麦麸质本身味道清淡,但它善于吸收味道。

Artificial meat

人造肉

@ Memphis Meats

@ Memphis Meats

@孟菲斯肉类

Back in 2013, the world watched as food critics tucked into the first ever lab-grown burger. The small pink patty, prised out of a petri dish and fried in front of the media, was proof that it was possible to grow safe and edible meat without slaughtering a single animal. There was just one problem: the patty had taken two years and over $300,000 (£231,000) to produce. Fast forward a few years and costs have plummeted. One company who makes artificial meat – Memphis Meats – says it costs $2,400 to produce, due to the pricey medium needed to culture cells. But the company aims to reduce that cost to under $5. The key is scaling up the technology to the level of an industrial food process. Polls suggest there’s a willingness to give this modern meat a go. A survey by The Guardian found that
68 per cent of people wanted to try cultured meat. But whether people reach for
cultured burgers at the supermarket is a different matter entirely.

早在2013年,全世界都眼睁睁的看着食品评论家们将其塞进第一个实验室生产的汉堡中。从皮氏培养皿中撬出的粉红色小馅饼,在培养基面前油炸,证明了不屠宰一只动物就可以生长出安全可食用的肉。只有一个问题:肉饼花了两年的时间,生产成本超过30万美元(23万英镑)。几年后,成本急剧下降。一家生产人造肉的公司孟菲斯肉类公司说,由于培养细胞所需的昂贵培养基,生产人造肉需要2400美元。但该公司的目标是将成本降低到5美元以下。关键是将技术扩展到工业食品加工的水平。民意调查显示,人们愿意尝试这种现代肉类。卫报的一项调查发现,68%的人想尝尝有文化的肉。但人们是否能在超市里买有文化的汉堡又是另外一回事了。

Milk © Getty Images

© Getty Images

© Getty Images

Perfect Day is one of the companies developing cow-free milk. Milk-producing genes are inserted into yeast, which are then bred to produce milk proteins. The company, based in Cork, has raised €20.9m to get its milk to market.

完美日是一家开发无牛奶的公司。产奶基因被放入到酵母中,然后被培育,接着产生乳蛋白。这家总部位于科克的公司筹集了2090万欧元,将牛奶推向市场。

Fungi

真菌界

Mycoprotein steak © Getty Images

Mycoprotein steak © Getty Images

菌蛋白牛排

© Getty Images

No, not mushrooms – mycoprotein. You’ll probably recognise the brand Quorn, named after a Leicestershire village. Quorn is made by growing the filamentous fungus (mould) Fusarium venenatum in fermentation tanks. The mycoprotein used to be marketed as ‘mushroom protein’ until manufacturers were told to stop by the Advertising Standards Agency. It’s now described as a “member of the fungi family”. Earlier this year, a report claimed Quorn worldwide sales increased by 16 per cent last year (and 25 per cent in the US) and is set to become a billion-dollar business in the future.

不,不是蘑菇——真菌蛋白。你可能会认出这是以莱斯特郡村庄命名的Quorn品牌。Quorn是通过在发酵罐中培养丝状真菌(霉菌)而制成的。在广告标准局中,在他们要求制造商停止生产之前,这种真菌蛋白一直被作为“蘑菇蛋白”销售。它现在被描述为“真菌家族的成员”。今年早些时候,一份报告称,Quorn的全球销售额去年增长了16%(在美国增长了25%),并将在未来会成为一项10亿美元的业务。

Could veganism save the planet?

素食主义能拯救地球吗?

According to figures from the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research one-third of our greenhouse gas emissions come from agriculture. But that’s just one factor. Our food system is also the leading cause of deforestation, land use change and biodiversity loss in the world. Then there’s overfishing, pollution, groundwater depletion, excessive fertiliser use and pesticides to contend with as well. So what can be done?

根据国际农业研究咨询小组的数据,我们温室气体排放量的三分之一来自农业。但这只是一个因素。我们的粮食系统也是世界上森林砍伐、土地利用变化和生物多样性丧失的主要原因。还有过度捕捞、污染、地下水枯竭、过度使用化肥和杀虫剂等问题。那么我们能做些什么呢?

A paper published in 2016 in Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences concluded that a mass switch to vegetarianism would bring down food-related greenhouse gas emissions by a whopping 63 per cent. Even just sticking to global health guidelines regarding meat consumption would be enough to reduce emissions by 29 per cent.

2016年发表在《美国国家科学院院院刊》上的一篇论文得出结论,大规模转向素食主义将使与食品有关的温室气体排放量下降63%。即使只是坚持全球肉类消费健康指导方针,也足以将排放量减少29%。

Going vegan, however, seems to have the edge in the planet-saving stakes. Many of the issues that arise from farming livestock for meat – methane emissions from animal digestion, pollution from farms, energy-intensive feeds – also apply to the dairy and egg industries. If widespread veganism was adopted, that 63 per cent reduction in emissions shoots up to 70 per cent.

然而,素食主义似乎在拯救这个星球上有优势。许多因饲养肉类牲畜而产生的问题——动物消化产生的甲烷排放、农场污染、能源密集型饲料——也适用于乳品和蛋类行业。如果广泛采用纯素主义,63%的减排率将达到70%。

Despite this, it’s thought only 2 per cent of the UK population is vegetarian, and less than 1 per cent is vegan. But maybe cutting out animal products isn’t necessarily the way to go.

尽管如此,人们认为只有2%的英国人口是素食者,而不到1%是素食者。但是,也许剔除动物产品不一定是可行的办法。

Some research has suggested that at least some degree of carnivory could be beneficial. A recent ****ysis of 10 diets, each with a different ratio of meat and animal products, saw veganism relegated to fifth place when it came to maximising sustainable land use, below different degrees of vegetarianism and omnivory.

一些研究表明,至少某种程度的狂欢是有益的。最近对10种饮食的分析表明,在最大限度地利用可持续土地的时候,素食主义被降到了第五位,低于不同程度的素食主义和杂食。

Read more 2019 science breakthroughs:

阅读更多2019年科学突破:

无人交通管制-改写无人机飞行规则

下一次伟大的火星生命探索

宝马后座司机2.0

Drone traffic control - rewriting the rules of flying UAVs (An M2 delivery drone carries lab samples between hospitals during a trial flight in Bern, Switzerland © Getty Images)

Relatively simple changes can make a difference, but when considering the scale of our food system’s impact on the planet, something bigger might be necessary. Industrial agriculture has been our go-to system for decades, but the overuse of chemical pesticides and fertilisers is resulting in degraded ecosystems that are not sustainable.

相对简单的变化可能会产生影响,但当考虑到我们的食物系统对地球的影响的规模时,可能需要更大的改变。几十年来,工业农业一直是我们的行家里手,但化学农药和化肥的过度使用导致生态系统退化,这是不可持续的。

A solution could be agroecology, a fancy term for restoring biodiversity and ecosystem functions in order to ensure productivity. These principles are already being put into action. As it stands, rice accounts for up to a third of our annual water use, but a low-water agroecological method known as System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is increasingly being used to produce rice yields up to 50 per cent larger. Water is only applied to the rice when needed, compost is used instead of chemical fertilisers and farmers weed by hand instead of using herbicides. Using this method, Sumant Kumar, a farmer from the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, has smashed the previous annual rice-growing record by an astonishing three tonnes.

一个解决办法可能是农业生态学,一个恢复生物多样性和生态系统功能以确保生产力的奇特术语。这些原则已经付诸行动。目前,水稻占到了我们每年用水量的三分之一,但一种被称为水稻强化系统(SRI)的低水农业生态方法正越来越多地被用于生产产量高达50%的水稻。水只在需要的时候用于水稻,堆肥代替化肥,农民用手除草代替除草剂。使用这种方法,来自印度泰米尔纳德邦(TamilNadu)的农民萨姆特库马尔(SumantKumar)将之前的水稻年增长记录打破了惊人的3吨。

A truly environmentally friendly diet relies on major systemic changes, but individual diets also need to change. The variety of data on offer can give the impression of flip-flopping within the scientific community, but it’s more indicative of the sheer complexity of the subject – not to mention the competing interests of stakeholders in the food industry.

真正环保的饮食依赖于重大的系统性改变,但个人饮食也需要改变。提供的各种数据可能会给人一种在科学界摇摆不定的印象,但它更能说明这个问题的纯粹复杂性,更不用说食品行业利益相关者的竞争利益了。

science-breakthroughs-2019

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