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学习英语语法 动词 短语动词

Learn English Grammar English Verbs PHRASAL VERBS
学习英语语法 动词 短语动词
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2019-09-04 08:38
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学习英语语法 动词 短语动词

What is a Phrasal Verb? 

什么是短语动词?

A phrasal verb is a combination of a verb and preposition, a verb and an adverb, or a verb with both an adverb and a preposition. 

短语动词是指一个动词和一个介词,或者是和一个副词的合成形式,也有一个动词和介词、副词同时结合的形式。

A phrasal verb has a meaning which is different from the original verb. That's what makes them fun, but confusing. You may need to try to guess the meaning from the context, or, failing that, look it up in a dictionary. 

短语动词可能拥有与原动词完全不同的含义。这正是它的魅力所在,同时也是容易令人弄混的地方。你可能需要联系文本来猜测其含义,或者有时不容易猜出来,需要查词典。

The adverb or preposition that follows the verb are sometimes called a particle. The particle changes the meaning of the phrasal verb in idiomatic ways. 

动词短语中,动词所引导的副词或介词有时被称作小品词。小品词通过一个更加符合语言习惯的方式来改变动词短语的含义。

They are also known as ‘compound verbs’, ‘verb-adverb combinations’, ‘verb-particle constructions", “two-part words/verbs’ and ‘three-part words/verbs’ (depending on the number of words). 

他们也被称作“复合动词”,“动词副词组合”,“动词小品词结构”,“两部分单词/动词”和“三部分单词/动词”(几部分取决于其单词数量)。

Phrasal verbs are usually used informally in everyday speech as opposed to the more formal Latinate verbs, such as “to get together” rather than “to congregate”, “to put off” rather than “to postpone”, or “to get out” rather than “to exit”. They should be avoided in academic writing. 

短语动词在日常口语中更加随意的被使用,与更加正式的拉丁文动词形成鲜明对比,比如,日常常使用“在一起”而非“群聚”,“推迟”而非“延期”,“出去”而非“离开”。但这些非正式的动词短语应避免出现在学术写作中。

!Note - Some linguists differentiate between phrasal verbs and prepositional verbs, while others assume them to be part of one and the same construction, as both types are phrasal in nature. So, unless you want to become a linguist, don't worry about it. 

!注意:一些语言学家将短语动词和介词动词区别开来,但同时也有人称应归为同一结构,因为这两种情况客观上都属于短语构成的动词。因此,如果你无意成为语言学家,不必太纠结这一点。

Literal usage 

字面意思的使用

Many verbs in English can be combined with an adverb or a preposition, a phrasal verb used in a literal sense with a preposition is easy to understand. 

英语中许多动词都可以和一个副词或介词构成合成形式,一个和介词构成的短语动词,如何从字面意思来使用,是很容易明白的。

"He walked across the square. 

“他走过了这个广场。”

Verb and adverb constructions are also easy to understand when used literally. 

仅使用其字面意思的话,动词副词结构也十分好理解。

"She opened the shutters and looked outside." 

“她拉开百叶窗向外看去。”

"When he heard the crash, he looked up." 

“当他听到撞击声时,他抬头查看。”

An adverb in a literal phrasal verb modifies the verb it is attached to, and a preposition links the subject to the verb. 

在一个字面短语动词中,副词改变了它所连接的动词的含义,同时,一个介词将主语和这个动词连接起来。

Idiomatic usage 

惯用情况

It is, however, the figurative or idiomatic application in everyday speech which makes phrasal verbs so important: 

这是指修辞性的语言应用或者惯用语应用,正是它们使动词短语如此重要。

"I hope you will get over your operation quickly." 

"希望你手术后能尽快恢复。"

The literal meaning of “to get over”, in the sense of “to climb over something to get to the other side”, is not relevant here. Here "get over" means "recover from" or "feel better". 

“to get over”的字面意思是指,“从上面翻过某物以到达该物的另一面”,但在这里它并非这个意思。这里“get over”表示“恢复”或是“感觉好些了”。

Transitive and intransitive phrasal verbs 

及物和不及物动词短语

Phrasal verbs also differ in their transitivity or intransitivity in the same way as normal verbs do. A transitive verb always has an object. 

与通常的动词相比,动词短语的及物性和不及物性也有所不同。及物动词后总接宾语。

For example:- 

比如:

“Many people walked across the bridge.” 

“许多人跨过这座桥”。

"Across" in this sentence is the preposition to "the bridge". 

“across”在这个句子中就是连接“桥梁”的介词。

An intransitive verb does not have an object. 

不及物动词不接宾语。

For example:- 

比如:

“When I entered the room he looked up.” 

“当我进入这个房间的时候他抬起了头。”

"Up" here is an adverb, and does not have an object. 

“Up”在这里是一个副词,并且没有接宾语。

Separable or inseparable phrasal verbs 

可分离动词短语或不可分离动词短语l

A further way of considering phrasal verbs is whether they are separable or inseparable. In inseparable verbs, the object comes after the particle. 

若要更进一步对动词短语分类,还可以从其可否拆分入手。在不可拆分动词中,宾语接在小品词后。

For example:- 

比如:

"She got on the bus ." 

”她上了车。”

"On weekdays, we look after our grandchildren." 

”每周工作日,我们都会照看我们的孙儿们。“

Separable verbs have several ways of separating verb, particle and object. Usually, the object comes between verb and particle. 

可分离动词有数种可以拆分动词、小品词和宾语的办法。通常情况下,宾语会放在动词和小品词之间。

For example:- 

比如:

"She looked up the word in her dictionary." 

“She looked up the word in her dictionary.”

"She looked it up in her dictionary." 

“She looked it up in her dictionary.”

However, with some separable verbs, the object can come before or after the particle. 

然而,对于有些可分离动词而言,宾语既可以放在小品词前,也可以放在小品词后。

For example:- 

比如:

"Switch the light off." 

“Switch the light off.”

"Switch off the light." 

"Switch off the light."

"Switch it off." 

"Switch it off."

!Note - There is usually no way of telling whether they are separable, inseparable, transitive or intransitive. In most cases you have to develop a feel for the correct use.

!注意:没有一个明确的标准可以判断一个动词短语是否是可分离的,或是否是可及物的。很多时候你需要自己积累语感才能正确使用。

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