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计划寻求比职业所需更多教育的学生挣的钱更多

Students Who Plan To Seek More Education Than Needed For Their Career Earn More Money
计划寻求比职业所需更多教育的学生挣的钱更多
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2019-09-17 06:58
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计划寻求比职业所需更多教育的学生挣的钱更多

When it comes to career success, it pays to aim for more education than what you need for the job you want.

当谈到职业成功时,追求比你想要的工作所需要的更多教育是值得的。

That is the key finding of a new study that I and several colleagues did by analyzing the salaries of high school students who expected to get more education than needed for their desired job. We compared their salaries to the salaries of students who planned to get only as much or less education than needed for their desired job.

这是我和几位同事通过分析高中生的薪水所做的一项新研究的关键发现。我们将他们的工资与学生的工资进行了比较,这些学生计划只接受与他们理想工作所需的同等或同等程度的教育。

Prior research had already shown that high school students who have a profession in mind and know what sort of education they need for that profession – what is sometimes referred to as “aligned ambitions” – secured more stable careers and higher wages early in their careers.

先前的研究已经表明,那些心中有职业,并且知道自己需要什么样的教育才能从事该职业的高中生——有时被称为“一致的抱负”——在职业生涯的早期就能获得更稳定的职业和更高的工资。

As a researcher who studies the impact college enrollment has on future earnings, I’ve discovered an additional payoff when students have what we might call “over-aligned” ambitions – that is to say, they expect to get more education than what they need for their desired career.

作为一名研究大学入学对未来收入影响的研究人员,我发现,当学生们拥有我们可能称之为“超过标准”的雄心壮志时,他们会得到额外的回报——也就是说,他们希望得到的教育比他们想要的职业所需要的更多。

For example, suppose a student aspired to become a police officer or a banker. At the time the students in our study were in high school – 1979 – those careers required only a high school diploma, which is still pretty much the case today. However, students who planned on those careers and planned to go to a four-year college ended up making substantially more money per year than others who aspired to the same occupation but did not plan as much education.

例如,假设一个学生渴望成为一名警察或银行家。在我们研究的学生上高中的时候——1979年——那些职业只需要高中文凭,今天仍然是这样。然而,那些计划从事这些职业并计划上四年制大学的学生,最终比那些渴望从事同样职业但不打算接受那么多教育的学生每年赚的钱要多得多。

Long-term payoffs

长期的回报

To reach this conclusion, we used data from a national sample. Starting in 1979, the survey asked young people how much education they expected to finish and what career they aspired to have at age 30, then followed them into their careers over the next few decades.

为了得出这个结论,我们使用了来自全国样本的数据。从1979年开始,这项调查询问年轻人,他们希望在30岁时完成多少学业,希望从事什么样的职业,然后在接下来的几十年里跟踪调查他们的职业生涯。

In analyzing these data, we identified three groups: Students who planned to get less education than they needed for the job they wanted; students who planned to get enough education for the job they wanted; and those whose educational goals were bigger than they needed to be.

在分析这些数据时,我们确定了三组人:计划接受少于他们想要的工作所需的教育的学生;计划接受足够教育的学生;以及那些教育目标远大于自身需要的人。

What we discovered is that students whose educational goals were too low in relation to their career goals earned the least. By age 33 to 45, those whose education goals were well aligned with their career goals earned 4% more than this first group. But students who were overly ambitious – planning to take on studies that weren’t required by the jobs they wanted – actually did best, earning 11% more than the least educationally minded peers. This is based on an index used to measure wages and occupational prestige.

我们发现,教育目标相对于职业目标过低的学生挣得最少。在33岁到45岁之间,那些教育目标与职业目标很好的人比第一组多挣4%。但那些过于雄心勃勃的学生——打算从事与他们想从事的工作无关的学习——实际上成绩最好,比那些受教育程度最低的同龄人高出11%。这是基于一个用来衡量工资和职业声望的指数。

These benefits extend through a person’s mid-40s.

这些好处一直持续到一个人45岁左右。

You might wonder if those who planned to get more education actually did so. In our analysis, we found that 75% of those who planned to get more education than needed for their planned careers actually got it. We also found that high school students who planned to have more education than required for their aspired job are more likely to graduate from four-year colleges.

你可能想知道那些计划接受更多教育的人是否真的这么做了。在我们的分析中,我们发现,那些计划接受比他们计划的职业所需更多的教育的人中,有75%实际上得到了。我们还发现,计划接受比理想工作更多教育的高中生更有可能从四年制大学毕业。

Graduate

Students take their seats for the diploma ceremony at the John F. Kennedy School of Government during the 361st Commencement Exercises at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, May 24, 2012. Photo: Reuters 

2012年5月24日,在马萨诸塞州剑桥市哈佛大学举行的第361届毕业典礼上,学生们在肯尼迪政府学院的毕业典礼上就座。图片:路透社

Aspiring for more

更有报负

These findings show the importance of high school students having information about how much education is necessary for certain careers, as well as aiming for more education than is necessary.

这些发现表明,高中生了解多少教育对于某些职业是必要的,以及追求比必要更多的教育是非常重要的。

Do these findings about high school students from 1979 apply to today’s high school students? In my opinion, the answer is yes.

这些关于1979年高中生的调查结果适用于今天的高中生吗?在我看来,答案是肯定的。

Students with high educational ambitions are more likely to attend and complete college than those with low educational ambitions, and college completion is likely to increase a student’s future earnings.

高学历的学生比低学历的学生更有可能进入大学并完成学业,大学毕业可能会增加学生未来的收入。

In addition, as the education requirements of the workplace have risen, students are more in danger of finding themselves lacking the necessary skills and credentials for the careers they want. Students who complete more education than is needed still get the skills they need, while leaving themselves open to more lucrative and prestigious career options.

此外,随着工作场所的教育要求提高,学生们更有可能发现自己缺乏从事自己想从事的职业所必需的技能和证书。那些完成了比实际需要更多的教育的学生仍然能够获得他们所需要的技能,同时为他们提供更赚钱、更有声望的职业选择。

Students can get job information from parents or other relatives. Or it could come from school counselors and teachers. School counselors, however, are often stretched thin and have more responsibilities than just helping students figure out their education and career options.

学生可以从父母或其他亲戚那里得到工作信息。也可能来自学校辅导员和老师。然而,学校辅导员的工作往往很紧张,他们的职责不仅仅是帮助学生找到他们的教育和职业选择。

Students should also have access to the high school coursework they need to pursue the college major they choose. However, students in schools that serve high proportions of minority students sometimes lack access or aren’t counseled, encouraged or prepared to enroll in STEM or advanced math coursework, which is likely to increase a student’s chances of going to college. Even when schools do offer a wide array of courses, minority students are often placed in lower-track courses.

学生也应该有机会学习他们选择的大学专业所需要的高中课程。然而,在少数族裔学生比例较高的学校,学生有时缺乏机会,或者没有得到咨询、鼓励或准备参加STEM或高等数学课程,这些课程可能会增加学生上大学的机会。即使学校提供广泛的课程,少数族裔学生也常常被安排在较低的课程中。

This is especially problematic because we found that minority students reap some of the largest benefits from having high educational and career ambitions. For example, we found that Hispanic students saw 13% higher wages when they expected to obtain more education than needed for their desired career.

这尤其成问题,因为我们发现少数族裔学生从高学历和职业抱负中获益最大。例如,我们发现,当西班牙裔学生期望获得比他们理想职业所需更多的教育时,他们的工资会上涨13%。

Planning coursework is a process that schools and parents should start early. This is because the courses students take in middle school and early high school can determine if they are able to get into higher-level and more specialized classes. For instance, research has shown that taking more advanced math and science increases the likelihood of going to college. It also leads to higher wage earnings.

计划课程是一个过程,学校和家长应该尽早开始。这是因为学生在初中和高中早期的课程可以决定他们是否能够进入更高层次和更专业的班级。例如,研究表明,学习更多的高等数学和科学可以增加上大学的可能性。这也会带来更高的工资收入。

Finally, mindset programs can help students envision their futures and persist through setbacks. This is important so that students who have higher expectations for education can actually realize them.

最后,心态课程可以帮助学生展望未来,并在挫折中坚持下去。这是很重要的,这样那些对教育有更高期望的学生才能真正实现他们。

Getting students to want more education is not just something that will make them better educated. My research shows that it will lead them to earn more money as well.

让学生想要更多的教育不仅仅是让他们受到更好的教育。我的研究表明,这也会让他们赚更多的钱。

Soobin Kim is a post-doctoral research fellow at Michigan State University.

金秀彬,密歇根州立大学博士后研究员。

This article originally appeared in The Conversation

这篇文章最初出现在The Conversation中。

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