Archaeologists find evidence of Babylonian conquest of Jerusalem -- as told in the Bible
考古学家发现巴比伦征服耶路撒冷的证据——如圣经之所言
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2019-08-13 16:08
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(CNN) — Archaeologists excavating on Mount Zion in Jerusalem have uncovered evidence of the Babylonian conquest of the city, appearing to confirm a Biblical account of its destruction.

(CNN)——在耶路撒冷的锡安山上进行考古挖掘的考古学家们已发现巴比伦人征服这座城市的证据,或将证实圣经中关于耶路撒冷之隳堕的记述。

Academics from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte made significant finds, including ash deposits, arrowheads and broken pieces of pots and lamps. The most surprising discovery, however, was an item of jewelry, which appears to be a tassel or earring with a bell-shaped upper portion, the researchers said.

北卡罗莱纳大学夏洛蒂分校的学者们有了重大发现,如灰烬沉积物、箭头以及锅与灯的碎片。而研究者们表示,最使人惊喜的发现是一件首饰,状如一件流苏饰品,或是一件上部呈钟形的耳环。

Shimon Gibson, co-director of the university's Mount Zion archaeological project, told CNN that the recovery of the rare piece of jewelry is the first time that archaeologists have uncovered signs of the "elites," appearing to confirm Biblical descriptions of Jerusalem's wealth prior to the conquest in 587-586 BC.

该校锡安山考古项目的联席主任西蒙·吉布森向CNN透露,这件珍贵首饰的出土是考古学家首次发现的“精英”的象征,或可证实在公元前587~586年耶路撒冷被征服前圣经中对其富有的描述。

Gibson said jewelry is a rare find at conflict sites as warriors would normally loot it and melt it down. It is a "clear indication of the wealth of the inhabitants of the city at the time of the siege," he said.

吉布森表示,在冲突地区,首饰出土稀少,因为士兵们通常会抢掠首饰并将之熔化。他说,这是“耶路撒冷被围时其居民之财富的清楚表征。”

The historian said that while the items in isolation do not provide conclusive evidence of the Babylonian attack, the unique mix of artifacts leads researchers to believe they have uncovered direct evidence of the conquest.

这位历史学家说,虽然这些相互孤立的物品未能提供巴比伦人进攻的确凿证据,但是这一批独特的文物使研究人员相信他们已经发现了征服活动的直接证据。

"For archaeologists, an ashen layer can mean a number of different things," Gibson said in a statement. "It could be ashy deposits removed from ovens; or it could be localized burning of garbage.

“对于考古学家而言,即使是一段灰烬地层都有不同的含义,”吉布森在一份声明中表示,“它可能是从烤炉中清理出来的炉灰的沉积物,也可能曾是当地垃圾焚烧地。”

"However, in this case, the combination of an ashy layer full of artifacts, mixed with arrowheads, and a very special ornament indicates some kind of devastation and destruction. Nobody abandons golden jewelry and nobody has arrowheads in their domestic refuse."

“然而,在这次的发掘中,我们发现了满是文物又混杂着箭头的的灰烬地层和一件非常特别的饰物,这两者意味着一些坍圮与毁灭。平日里,没有人会丢弃黄金首饰,也没有谁家的垃圾里会出现箭头。”

The location of the artifacts meant researchers were able to rule out other explanations for the findings. "We know where the ancient fortification line ran, so we know we are within the city," Gibson said.

文物的出土地点意味着研究人员可以排除对他们发现的其他解释。“我们知道古代的防御工事向何处延伸,所以我们确知我们身处城市内部。”吉布森如是说。

The team noted that the recovered arrowheads, known as Scythian arrowheads, are "fairly commonplace" in battle sites from the 7th and 6th centuries BCE, and were known to be used by Babylonian warriors.

考古队注明,那些已被修复的箭头被认为是斯基泰人所制,在公元前7~6世纪的战场上“非常常见”,且已知巴比伦士兵也有使用此类箭头。

"This evidence points to the historical conquest of the city by Babylon because the only major destruction we have in Jerusalem for this period is the conquest of 587/586 BCE," Gibson said.

吉布森表示:“这项证据指向巴比伦帝国对这座城市的历史性征服,因为在目前阶段,我们在耶路撒冷唯一发现的大规模破坏就是由公元前587~586年的征服造成。”

He added that the clay artifacts -- which include broken pieces of pottery, portions of the period's typical high-based pinched lamps, and other household objects -- further helped the team to date the discoveries. "It's the kind of jumble that you would expect to find in a ruined household following a raid or battle," he said.

他补充说,这些陶制的文物,例如陶器残片、这时期典型的一些高基灯以及其他一些日用品,极大帮助了考古队对这些出土物进行断代。他说:“这是那种你有望在袭击或战斗之后留下的房屋废墟之中找到的堆积物。”

"It is very exciting to be able to excavate the material signature of any given historical event, and even more so regarding an important historical event such as the Babylonian siege of Jerusalem," said Rafi Lewis, a co-director on the project.

考古项目的一位联席主任拉斐·刘易斯表示:“能够挖掘出任何已知历史事件的物质证据都是令人激动的,而至于像耶路撒冷的巴比伦围城这样的重要历史事件,就更是如此。”

The findings are of particular significance as they shed light on a defining event in Jewish history.

这些发现意义非凡,因为它们阐明了犹太民族历史进程中的一个决定性事件。

The conquest, led by the Neo-Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar II, is believed to have resulted in a significant loss of life when the city was razed to the ground. It also led to the destruction of King Solomon's Temple -- a story recounted in the Old Testament's Second Book of Kings.

新巴比伦王国的国王尼布甲尼撒二世领导的这场征服造成了巨大的伤亡,耶路撒冷也被夷为平地。所罗门王的神庙亦因之而倒塌,此事在圣经·旧约的第二部国王之书中有所记述。

Orthodox Jews around the world commemorate the event every year on Tisha B'Av, an annual day of fasting and mourning, which this year took place on Sunday. The day, which is regarded as the saddest in the Jewish calendar, also marks the destruction of the Second Temple by Roman legions around 70 AD.

在每一年的圣殿被毁日——今年是在一个周日,全世界的正统犹太人都会纪念这次征服,他们禁食,他们悼念。这一天已被犹太人视为一年中最为悲伤之日,同时也是公元70年前后,罗马军团毁灭第二圣殿的纪念日。

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