The Startling Link Between Sugar and Alzheimer's
糖与阿尔茨海默氏症的惊人联系
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2019-08-12 20:52
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Melissa Schilling, a professor at New York University, performed her own review of studies connecting diabetes to Alzheimer’s She sought to reconcile two confusing trends. People who have type 2 diabetes are about twice as likely to get Alzheimer’s, and people who have diabetes and are treated with insulin are also more likely to get Alzheimer’s, suggesting elevated insulin plays a role in Alzheimer’s. In fact, many studies have found that elevated insulin, or “hyperinsulinemia,” significantly increases your risk of Alzheimer’s. On the other hand, people with type 1 diabetes, who don’t make insulin at all, are also thought to have a higher risk of Alzheimer’s. How could these both be true?

纽约大学教授Melissa Schilling经过对糖尿病与阿尔茨海默氏症关系的多年研究(own review),才弄清了二者之间令人困惑的关系。2型糖尿患者诱发阿尔茨海默氏症大约为普通人两倍,经胰岛素治疗糖尿病患者更有可能罹患阿尔茨海默氏症。这表明,胰岛素水平对阿尔茨海默病有重要影响。事实上,大量研究已经证明,胰岛素升高或“高胰岛素血症”会增加阿尔茨海默病风险。另一方面也认为,1型糖尿病患者根本不服用胰岛素,同样存在阿尔茨海默症高风险。这难道都是真的?

Schilling posits this happens because of the insulin-degrading enzyme, a product of insulin that breaks down both insulin and amyloid proteins in the brain—the same proteins that clump up and lead to Alzheimer’s disease. People who don’t have enough insulin, like those whose bodies’ ability to produce insulin has been tapped out by diabetes, aren’t going to make enough of this enzyme to break up those brain clumps. Meanwhile, in people who use insulin to treat their diabetes and end up with a surplus of insulin, most of this enzyme gets used up breaking that insulin down, leaving not enough enzyme to address those amyloid brain clumps.

Schilling认为,发生这种情况是由于胰岛素降解酶(一种分解大脑胰岛素和淀粉样蛋白的胰岛素产物)降解作用和淀粉样蛋白(导致阿尔茨海默症的同类蛋白)在大脑的堆积。没有足够胰岛素(如糖尿病破坏了身体产生胰岛素能力)的人,不会有足够酶分解大脑淀粉样蛋白堆积。与此同时,在那些用胰岛素来治疗糖尿病患者中,分解胰岛素的酶大部分消耗尽,剩下的无法靶向大脑淀粉样堆积。

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