The Scientific Underpinnings and Impacts of Shame
羞耻的科学基础和影响
1792字
2019-08-11 21:57
55阅读
火星译课图片

People who feel shame readily are at risk for depression and anxiety disorders

容易感到羞耻的人有患抑郁症和焦虑症的风险

The Scientific Underpinnings and Impacts of Shame

盖蒂图片

In Brief

简而言之

We feel shame when we violate the social norms we believe in. At such moments we feel humiliated, exposed and small and are unable to look another person straight in the eye. We want to sink into the ground and disappear.

当我们违反我们所信仰的社会规范时,我们会感到羞耻。在这样的时刻,我们感到羞辱、暴露和渺小,无法直视他人的眼睛。我们想钻入地下然后消失。

Shame makes us direct our focus inward and view our entire self in a negative light. Feelings of guilt, in contrast, result from a concrete action for which we accept responsibility. Guilt causes us to focus our attention on the feelings of others.

羞耻使我们把注意力转向内心,用消极的眼光看待自己。相反,罪恶感来自于我们接受责任的具体行动。内疚使我们把注意力集中在别人的感受上。

Women are quicker to feel humiliated than men, and adolescents feel shame more intensely than adults do. As a result, women and adolescents are more susceptible to the negative effects of shame, such as low self-esteem and depression.

女性比男性更容易感到羞耻,青少年比成年人更容易感到羞耻。因此,女性和青少年更容易受到羞耻感的负面影响,如自卑和抑郁。

We have all felt shame at one time or another. Maybe we were teased for mispronouncing a common word or for how we looked in a bathing suit, or perhaps a loved one witnessed us telling a lie. Shame is the uncomfortable sensation we feel in the pit of our stomach when it seems we have no safe haven from the judging gaze of others. We feel small and bad about ourselves and wish we could vanish. Although shame is a universal emotion, how it affects mental health and behavior is not self-evident. Researchers have made good progress in addressing that question.

我们都有过羞愧的时候。也许我们因为念错了一个普通的单词或者穿着泳衣的样子而被取笑,或者也许我们的爱人看到我们说谎。羞耻是一种不舒服的感觉,当我们在他人的评判目光中似乎没有安全的避风港时,我们会感到内心的不安。我们对自己感到渺小和糟糕,希望自己能消失。尽管羞耻是一种普遍的情绪,但它如何影响心理健康和行为却不是不言自明的。研究人员在解决这个问题上取得了良好的进展。

Bad for Your Health

对你的健康有害

According to philosopher Hilge Landweer of the Free University of Berlin, certain conditions must come together for someone to feel shame. Notably, the person must be aware of having transgressed a norm. He or she must also view the norm as desirable and binding because only then can the transgression make one feel truly uncomfortable. It is not even always necessary for a disapproving person to be present; we need only imagine another’s judgment. Often someone will conjure an image of a parent asking, “Aren’t you ashamed?” Indeed, we may internalize such admonishments so completely that the norms and expectations laid on us by our parents in childhood continue to affect us well into adulthood.

柏林自由大学(Free University of Berlin)的哲学家希尔格•兰德威尔(Hilge Landweer)认为,某些特定的条件必须结合在一起,才能让人感到羞耻。值得注意的是,这个人必须意识到自己违反了规范。他或她还必须把规范看作是可取的和有约束力的,因为只有这样,越轨才会让人感到真正的不舒服。甚至不赞成的人也不一定要在现场;我们只需要想象别人的判断。经常有人会想象出一个家长在问:“你不感到羞耻吗?”事实上,我们可能会把这种训诫完全内化,以至于父母在童年时期对我们施加的规范和期望,会一直影响到我们成年。

June Tangney of George Mason University has studied shame for decades. In numerous collaborations with Ronda L. Dearing of the University of Houston and others, she has found that people who have a propensity for feeling shame—a trait termed shame-proneness—often have low self-esteem (which means, conversely, that a certain degree of self-esteem may protect us from excessive feelings of shame). Tangney and Dearing are among the investigators who have found that shame-proneness can also increase one’s risk for other psychological problems. The link with depression is particularly strong; for instance, one large-scale meta-analysis in which researchers examined 108 studies involving more than 22,000 subjects showed a clear connection.

乔治梅森大学(George Mason University)的琼•坦尼(June Tangney)研究羞耻已经有几十年了。在与朗达·l·休斯顿大学和其他人的众多合作中,她发现感觉羞耻的倾向一称之为羞耻倾向特征——自尊较低(这意味着,相反,一定程度的自尊可能保护我们免受过度羞耻的感觉)。唐尼和迪林等研究人员发现,羞耻感也会增加一个人出现其他心理问题的风险。与抑郁症的联系尤其紧密;例如,在一项大规模的元分析中,研究人员调查了涉及2.2万多名受试者的108项研究,结果表明两者之间存在明显的联系。

In a 2009 study, Sera De Rubeis, then at the University of Toronto, and Tom Hollenstein of Queen’s University in Ontario looked specifically at the trait’s effects on depressive symptoms in adolescents. The project included roughly 140 volunteers between the ages of 11 and 16 and found that teenagers who exhibited greater shame-proneness were also more likely to have symptoms of depression. There also seems to be a connection between shame-proneness and anxiety disorders, such as social anxiety disorder and generalized anxiety disorder, as Thomas A. Fergus, now at Baylor University, and his colleagues reported in 2010.

在2009年的一项研究中,多伦多大学的色拉尔·德·鲁贝斯(Sera De Rubeis)和安大略省皇后大学的汤姆·霍伦斯坦(Tom Hollenstein)专门研究了这种性格对青少年抑郁症症状的影响。该项目包括了大约140名年龄在11岁到16岁之间的志愿者,他们发现,表现出更多羞耻感的青少年也更有可能出现抑郁症的症状。正如贝勒大学(Baylor University)的托马斯·A·费格斯(Thomas a . Fergus)和他的同事在2010年报告的那样,羞耻感倾向和焦虑症之间似乎也存在联系,比如社交焦虑症和广泛性焦虑症。

Sex and Age Differences

性别及年龄差异

In 2010 a team of psychologists led by Ulrich Orth of the University of Bern studied shame in more than 2,600 volunteers between the ages of 13 and 89, most of whom lived in the U.S. They found not only that men and women manifest shame differently but also that age seems to affect how readily people experience it: adolescents are most prone to this sensation; the propensity for shame decreases in middle age until about the age of 50; and later in life people again become more easily embarrassed. The authors see this pattern as a function of personality development. The identities of teenagers and young adults are not completely formed; in addition, people in this age group are expected to conform to all manner of norms that define their place in society. Uncertainty as to how to deal with these external expectations may make them quicker to feel shame. By middle age, in contrast, our character is more or less set, and norms have less impact. But as we enter old age and worry about declines in our body and our appearance, we begin to feel self-conscious again.

一个心理学家小组2010年伯尔尼大学的乌尔里希奥尔特领导的研究多羞耻13至89岁之间的2600名志愿者,其中大多数在美国居住他们发现,男性和女性不仅体现耻辱不同而且年龄似乎容易影响人们经验:青少年是最容易感觉;害羞的倾向在中年时下降,直到50岁左右;在以后的生活中,人们再次变得更加容易感到尴尬。作者认为这种模式是人格发展的一种功能。青少年和青壮年的身份尚未完全形成;此外,这个年龄段的人被期望遵守定义他们社会地位的各种规范。如何应对这些外部期望的不确定性,可能会让他们更快地感到羞愧。相比之下,到了中年,我们的性格或多或少已经定型,规范的影响也较小。但是当我们进入老年,担心我们的身体和外表的衰退时,我们又开始有了自我意识。

盖蒂图片

Guilt and Shame: Related but Different

内疚和羞耻感:相关但不同

It has been speculated that humans feel shame because it conferred some kind of evolutionary advantage on our early ancestors. For instance, it can potentially promote a group’s well-being by encouraging individuals to adhere to social conventions and to work to stay in others’ good graces.

据推测,人类感到羞耻是因为它赋予了我们早期祖先某种进化优势。例如,它可以通过鼓励个人遵守社会习俗,努力保持他人的好感,从而潜在地促进一个群体的福祉。

Yet Tangney and others argue that shame reduces one’s tendency to behave in socially constructive ways; rather it is shame’s cousin, guilt, that promotes socially adaptive behavior. People often speak of shame and guilt as if they were the same, but they are not. Like shame, guilt occurs when we transgress moral, ethical or religious norms and criticize ourselves for it. The difference is that when we feel shame, we view ourselves in a negative light (“I did something terrible!”), whereas when we feel guilt, we view a particular action negatively (“I did something terrible!”). We feel guilty because our actions affected someone else, and we feel responsible.

然而,唐尼和其他人认为,羞耻降低了一个人以建设性的方式表现的倾向;相反,内疚是羞耻的近亲,促进了社会适应行为。人们常把羞耻和内疚说成是一回事,其实不然。就像羞耻一样,当我们违反道德、伦理或宗教规范并为此批评自己时,负罪感就会产生。不同之处在于,当我们感到羞耻时,我们用消极的眼光看待自己(“做了件可怕的事!”),而当我们感到内疚时,我们用消极的眼光看待特定的行为(“我做了件可怕的事!”)。我们感到内疚,因为我们的行为影响了别人,我们感到有责任。

Tangney and her co-authors explained it well in a 2005 paper: “A shame-prone individual who is reprimanded for being late to work after a night of heavy drinking might be likely to think, ‘I’m such a loser; I just can’t get it together,’ whereas a guilt-prone individual would more likely think, ‘I feel badly for showing up late. I inconvenienced my co-workers.’ Feelings of shame can be painful and debilitating, affecting one’s core sense of self, and may invoke a self-defeating cycle of negative affect.... In comparison, feelings of guilt, though painful, are less disabling than shame and are likely to motivate the individual in a positive direction toward reparation or change.”

汤尼和她的合著者在2005年的一篇论文中对此做了很好的解释:“一个有羞耻感的人,在喝了一整夜的酒后,因为上班迟到而受到训斥,他可能会想,‘我真是个失败者;而有内疚感的人更可能会想,“我迟到了,感觉很糟糕。”我给同事们带来了不便。“羞耻感会让人感到痛苦和虚弱,影响一个人的核心自我意识,并可能引发一个自我挫败的负面影响循环……”相比之下,内疚虽然让人痛苦,但却没有羞耻感那么让人丧失行为能力,而且很可能会促使个人朝着积极的方向去弥补或改变。”

Further, guilt is a sign that a person can be empathetic, a trait that is important for one’s ability to take someone else’s perspective, to behave altruistically and to have close, caring relationships. Indeed, we can feel a sense of guilt only if we can put ourselves in another’s shoes and recognize that our action caused pain or was injurious to the other person. As is generally true of young children, people who are unable to empathize cannot feel guilt. Guilt holds us back from harming others and encourages us to form relationships for the common good. When we feel guilty, we turn our gaze outward and seek strategies to reverse the harm we have done. When we feel ashamed, we turn our attention inward, focusing mainly on the emotions roiling within us and attending less to what is going on around us.

此外,内疚是一个人能有同理心的标志,这种特质对一个人能否站在别人的角度,表现得无私,以及拥有亲密、关爱的关系都很重要。事实上,只有当我们设身处地为他人着想,意识到自己的行为给他人带来痛苦或伤害时,我们才会感到内疚。就像小孩子一样,没有同情心的人也不会感到内疚。内疚使我们不敢伤害他人,并鼓励我们为了共同的利益而建立关系。当我们感到内疚的时候,我们会把目光转向外面,寻求扭转我们所造成伤害的策略。当我们感到羞愧时,我们把注意力转向内心,主要集中在我们内心骚动的情绪上,而较少注意周围发生的事情。

One study that clearly associates guilt and empathy was published in 2015. Matt Treeby, then at La Trobe University in Melbourne, and his colleagues first examined the extent to which test subjects tended toward shame or guilt. Then they had the 363 participants look at facial expressions and determine whether the person was angry, sad, happy, fearful, disgusted or ashamed. Guilt-prone volunteers proved to be more accurate in their observations: they were better able to recognize the emotions of others than were shame-prone volunteers.

2015年发表的一项研究明确地将内疚和同理心联系起来。马特·特里比(Matt Treeby)当时在墨尔本的拉筹伯大学(La Trobe University)工作。然后,他们让363名参与者观察他们的面部表情,判断他们是愤怒、悲伤、快乐、恐惧、厌恶还是羞愧。事实证明,有内疚感的志愿者的观察结果更准确:他们比有内疚感的志愿者更能识别他人的情绪。

Of course, guilt and shame often occur together to some extent. Guilt can trigger a sense of shame in many people because of the discrepancy between the standard to which they hold themselves and the action that caused the guilt. The connection between guilt and shame grows stronger with an increase in the intentionality of our misbehavior, the number of people who witnessed it and the importance of those individuals to us. Shame will also increase if the person who was harmed by our action rejects or rebukes us.

当然,在某种程度上,内疚和羞耻常常同时发生。内疚会引发许多人的羞耻感,因为他们所持的标准与导致罪恶感的行为之间存在差异。内疚和羞耻感之间的联系随着我们行为不端的意向性的增加、目睹这种行为的人数的增加以及这些人对我们的重要性的增加而增强。如果被我们的行为伤害的人拒绝或责备我们,羞愧感也会增加。

Haunted by Original Sin

被原罪缠绕

In the bible, nakedness is a source of shame. The book of Genesis 2:25 says of Adam and Eve, “And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed.” That changed when they rebelled against God’s commandment and ate of the tree of knowledge. From then on, they felt ashamed in each other’s presence: “And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons.”

在圣经中,赤/裸是羞耻的来源。创世纪2章25节说到亚当和夏娃,“那人和他妻子赤身露体,并不羞耻。但当他们违背神的诫命,吃了智慧树的果子,情况就改变了。从此,他们二人在彼此面前惭愧。又缝无花果树的叶子,为自己做裙子。

This biblical interpretation of nakedness as shameful still deeply informs the social norms and conventions that determine how we deal with human physicality and sexuality. Although our notions of whether, how, where and in the presence of whom a person may be undressed have changed over the centuries, the shame we feel when we transgress the norms has remained.

《圣经》对裸体可耻的解释,仍然深刻地反映了决定我们如何对待人类肉体和性的社会规范和习俗。尽管我们对一个人是否、如何、在哪里以及在谁面前脱光衣服的观念在几个世纪以来已经发生了变化,但当我们违反这些规范时所感到的羞耻仍然存在。

Ridding oneself of guilt is often easier than overcoming shame, in part because our society offers many ways to expiate guilt-inducing offenses, including apologizing, paying fines, and serving jail time. Certain religious rituals, such as confession, may also help us deal with guilt. But shame has real staying power: it is much easier to apologize for a transgression than it is to accept oneself.

从内疚中解脱出来往往比克服羞愧更容易,部分原因是我们的社会提供了许多方法来为诱发负罪感的罪行赎罪,包括道歉、缴纳罚款和服刑。某些宗教仪式,如忏悔,也可以帮助我们处理内疚。但是羞耻有真正的持久力:为自己的过失道歉要比接受自己容易得多。

Some kinds of guilt can be as destructive as shame-proneness is—namely, “free-floating” guilt (not tied to a specific event) and guilt about events that one has no control over. In general, though, it appears that shame is often the more destructive emotion. It follows, then, that parents, teachers, judges and others who want to encourage constructive behavior in their charges would do well to avoid shaming rule-breakers, choosing instead to help them to understand the effects of their actions on others and to take steps to make up for their transgressions.

有些类型的负罪感和羞耻感一样具有破坏性,也就是说,“自由浮动”的负罪感(不受特定事件的约束)和对自己无法控制的事件的负罪感。不过,总的来说,羞愧往往是更具破坏性的情绪。此前,父母、教师、法官和其他人想要鼓励建设性的行为在他们的指控可能会避免羞辱违规者,而是选择帮助他们理解他们的行为对他人的影响和采取措施来弥补他们的过犯。

More to Explore

更多的探索

On the Intensity of Experiencing Feelings of Shame in Mental Disorders. Annette Kämmerer in Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie, Vol. 60, No. 7, pages 262–270; July 2010.

在精神障碍中经历强烈的羞耻感。《心理治疗》,安尼特·卡默勒著,《心理学》,第60卷,第7期,第262-270页;2010年7月。

Tracking the Trajectory of Shame, Guilt, and Pride across the Life Span. Ulrich Orth et al. in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 99, No. 6, pages 1061–1071; December 2010.

在一生中跟踪羞耻、内疚和骄傲的轨迹。《人格与社会心理学杂志》,第99卷,第6期,第1061-1071页;2010年12月。

Shame, Guilt, and Facial Emotion Processing: Initial Evidence for a Positive Relationship between Guilt-Proneness and Facial Emotion Recognition Ability. Matt S. Treeby et al. in Cognition and Emotion, Vol. 30, No. 8, pages 1504–1511; December 2016.

羞耻、内疚感和面部情绪处理:内疚感倾向和面部情绪识别能力之间存在积极关系的初步证据。《认知与情感》,第30卷第8期,第1504-1511页;2016年12月。

Shame and Guilt: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. Video lecture by June Tangney. Presented by George Mason University and ResearchChannel: https://youtu.be/febgutDYP7w

羞耻与罪恶感:好、坏、丑。June Tangney的视频讲座。由乔治梅森大学和研究频道提供:https://youtu.be/febgutDYP7w

ABOUT THE AUTHOR(S)

关于作者(们)

Annette Kämmerer

安妮特·卡默勒

Annette Kämmerer is a psychologist and professor emerita at the Institute of Psychology at Heidelberg University in Germany. She sees patients in private practice and trains young psychotherapists.

安妮特·卡默勒(Annette Kammerer)是德国海德堡大学(Heidelberg University)心理研究所的心理学家和荣誉教授。她在私人诊所看病,并培训年轻的心理治疗师。

0 +1
举报
0 条评论
评论不能为空

城市的内容