最新研究显示,古玛雅人发动了“全面战争”
Ancient Maya Committed 'Act of Total War', New Study Reveals
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2019-08-13 20:40
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火星译客

Earlier research had suggested that the Classic Maya period during the civilisation’s prime was characterised by prosperity and generally less violent - with the exception of traditional rituals.

先前的研究表明,玛雅文明鼎盛时期的玛雅古典时期的特点是繁荣昌盛,暴力行为普遍较少——除了传统的仪式。

The ancient Maya were a great deal more violent, burning a city in an “act of total war” long before previously thought, according to a revealing study published on 5 August in Nature Human Evolution.

8月5日发表在《自然-人类进化》(Nature Human Evolution)杂志上的一项揭示真相的研究显示,古玛雅人的暴力程度要比印象中严重得多,他们在一场“全面战争”中烧毁了一座城市,这比我们之前想象的要早得多。

Researchers led by David Wahl from the US Geological Survey examined an ancient hieroglyphic inscription at Naranjo, a Maya city 20 miles south of Witzna, in what is now northern Guatemala.

美国地质调查局(US Geological Survey)的戴维•沃尔(David Wahl)带领的研究人员在纳兰乔(Naranjo)研究了一幅古老的象形文字碑文。纳兰乔位于玛雅城市纳兰乔以南20英里处,位于如今的危地马拉北部。

The scientists were intrigued to discover the text reveals a spate of military campaigns against a neighbouring kingdom, including one called Bahlam Jol, which once belonged to Naranjo.

科学家们很好奇地发现,这段文字揭示了一系列针对邻国的军事行动,包括曾经属于纳兰乔的巴林约尔(Bahlam Jol)。

The inscriptions read that the city "burned for the second time."

碑文上写着,这座城市“第二次被烧毁”。

According to researchers, the attack took place in May, 697 AD - a year after another kingdom, Komkom, was also razed by fire.

据研究人员称,这次袭击发生在公元697年5月,而一年前的另一个王国Komkom也被大火夷为平地。

Wahl and his team analysed physical evidence to support the hieroglyph claims of a burned city. They studied sediments in a lake near the site, and found “a distinct charcoal layer” that they dated to the end of the seventh century, that shows there had been a huge fire.

沃尔的团队分析了实物证据,用来支持烧毁城市的碑文记载。他们研究了遗址附近一个湖泊的沉积物,发现了“一个独特的木炭层”,可以追溯到七世纪末,这表明曾经发生过一场大火。

The date coincides with the hieroglyphic record of Bahlam Jol burning down.

这一时间与巴林约尔被烧毁的象形文字所记载的相符。

The study also revealed a reduction in local land use, which was likely due to a fall in population.

研究还显示,当地土地使用减少,这可能是由于人口下降。

What makes the research so groundbreaking is that the events mentioned in the inscriptions occurred during the Classic Maya period (250 to 900 AD), during the civilisation’s prime.

这项研究之所以具有开创性,是因为铭文中提到的事件发生在玛雅的古典时期(公元250年至公元900年),也就是文明的鼎盛时期。

Scientists previously believed the era was noted for prosperity and sophistication, when extensive trade networks were laid out, and advanced calendars assembled based on extensive study of the stars.

科学家们此前认为,那个时代以繁荣和复杂著称,当时铺设了广大的贸易网络,为研究星宿而编制了先进复杂的算法和日历。

Experts did not believe violence was a part of Mayan life during this period, with the exception of rituals.

专家们不相信暴力是玛雅人在这一时期生活的一部分,除了宗教仪式。

War and violent attacks grew in prominence in the Terminal Classic Period, between 800 and 950 AD., coinciding with the decline of the civilisation.

战争和暴力袭击在公元800年至950年的古典时期末期日益突出。这与玛雅文明的衰落相吻合。

Existing theories suggest that overpopulated cities and severe drought resulted in the wars that eventually brought about the collapse of the Maya civilisation.

而现有的理论认为,人口过多的城市和严重的干旱导致了战争,最终导致了玛雅文明的崩溃。

"As with many aspects of Maya civilisation, we continue to realise that the pre-Hispanic Maya were more complex than previously thought, " concludes the study.

对这项研究的总结:“就像玛雅文明的许多方面一样,我们意识到,前西班牙时代的玛雅比我们之前想象的要复杂得多。”

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