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人类所经历的睡眠可能出现在4.5亿年前

Sleep As Humans Experience It May Have Emerged 450 Million Years Ago
人类所经历的睡眠可能出现在4.5亿年前
704字
2019-08-03 17:35
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人类所经历的睡眠可能出现在4.5亿年前

Scientists who studied a small, transparent fish believe the way humans sleep could have evolved 450 million years ago.

研究一种透明小鱼的科学家认为,人类的睡眠方式可能在4.5亿年前就已经进化出来了。

When mammals, along with birds and lizards, sleep, scientists think they experience what is known as deep sleep and rapid eye movement. For a study published in the journal Nature, this group of scientists wanted to find out more about how fish sleep.

当哺乳动物和鸟类、蜥蜴一起睡觉时,科学家们认为他们经历了所谓的深度睡眠和快速眼球运动。在《自然》杂志上发表的一项研究中,这组科学家想要了解更多关于鱼类睡眠的信息。

Philippe Mourrain, study co-author and associate professor at Stanford University School of Medicine, told Newsweek the team set out to uncover whether sleep, as it is known in humans, is a more ancestral biological phenomenon than previously thought.

斯坦福大学医学院副教授、该研究的合著者菲利普·莫兰在接受《新闻周刊》采访时表示,研究小组的目的是要揭示睡眠是否比之前认为的更像一种祖先的生物现象。

The zebrafish is a useful animal for scientists to study as it shares 84 percent of the genes that cause disease in humans. It also has a brain, heart, kidneys and liver, reports National Geographic. They are also diurnal like humans, unlike the rodents that are commonly used in research. Helpfully for senior author Mourrain and his colleagues, the zebrafish's brain is translucent.

斑马鱼是科学家研究的有用动物,因为它与人类84%的致病基因相同。据《国家地理》报道,它还有大脑、心脏、肾脏和肝脏。它们也像人类一样是白天活动的,不像研究中常用的啮齿类动物。对于资深作家Mourrain和他的同事来说,斑马鱼的大脑是半透明的,这对他们很有帮助。

The team studied zebrafish in a lab, kept in water that immobilized them. As the fish slept, the scientists used equipment to document their brain activity as well as their eye movement, heart rate and muscle dynamics.

研究小组在实验室中对斑马鱼进行了研究,将斑马鱼放在固定它们的水中。当鱼睡觉时,科学家们用仪器记录它们的大脑活动、眼球运动、心率和肌肉动态。

"This method, which we call fluorescent polysomnography [fPSG], is completely non-invasive and doesn't require any surgery, it simply leverages the optical transparency of the fish," explained Mourrain.

Mourrain解释说:“这种方法,我们称之为荧光多导睡眠描记法,是完全无创的,不需要任何手术,它只是利用了鱼的光学透明度。”

"For a simpler comparison, imagine scanning an entire transparent human being and being able to visualize and monitor every single cell in his or her body,"

“为了更简单的比较,想象一下扫描一个完整的透明的人,能够看到和监控他或她身体里的每一个细胞,”

Zebrafish demonstrated what the authors described as "slow bursting sleep" and "propagating wave sleep," which they say are comparable to deep sleep and rapid eye movement sleep. They also found hormone signals that control propagating wave sleep, which mirrored sleep in mammals.

斑马鱼展示了作者所描述的“慢爆发睡眠”和“传播波睡眠”,他们说这相当于深度睡眠和快速眼动睡眠。他们还发现了控制波睡眠传播的激素信号,这与哺乳动物的睡眠情况类似。

"These observations suggest that common neural signatures of sleep may have emerged in the vertebrate brain over 450 million years ago," the authors wrote.

作者写道:“这些观察结果表明,4.5亿年前,脊椎动物大脑中可能已经出现了睡眠的共同神经信号。”

"We truly did not expect to find so many similarities with human and mammalian sleep," said Mourrain.

Mourrain说:“我们真的没想到会发现人类和哺乳动物的睡眠有如此多的相似之处。”

"To see, in a live vertebrate, the complex choreography of brain and muscle activity during wake-sleep transitions and sleep was mind-blowing," he said.

他说:“在活的脊椎动物身上,能看到大脑和肌肉在清醒-睡眠转换和睡眠期间的复杂活动,真是令人兴奋。”

However, as the authors could not keep the fish asleep more than two hours under a microscope, they couldn't monitor a full night's rest.

然而,由于作者不能让鱼在显微镜下保持超过两个小时的睡眠,他们无法监测整晚的睡眠。

"Still, 2 hours is a long time, it's more than a 90 minutes NREM [Non-rapid eye movement sleep REM [Rapid eye movement] cycle in humans or it's as much sleep as a horse or elephant get during a 24-hour cycle so it's a very rich time window even if it's not the entire night," said Mourrain.

“不过,2个小时是很长一段时间,它超过人类90多分钟的非快速眼动睡眠[NREM]与快速眼动睡眠[REM]循环,或者说相当于一匹马或者象在一个24小时的循环里睡眠时间的长度。即使不是一整晚,这个时间窗口期也足够长了,“Mourrain说。

The findings could help to develop drugs and tests to treat sleep problems in humans.

这一发现有助于开发治疗人类睡眠问题的药物和测试。

sleep, alarm clock, bed, woman, stock, getty,

A stock image of a woman turning off her alarm clock. Scientists believe neural sleep patterns seen in humans emerged 450 million years ago. 

一张普通的照片,一个女人关掉了她的闹钟。科学家认为,人类的神经睡眠模式出现于4.5亿年前。

"People forget that vertebrates are all very similar in their body organization and organs," said Mourrain. "We not only share a backbone protecting our spinal cord, the rest of the brain and neurochemistry allowing neurons to communicate is extremely conserved."

“人们忘记了脊椎动物的身体组织和器官都非常相似,”Mourrain说。“我们不仅共用一个脊椎骨来保护我们的脊髓,大脑的其他部分和允许神经元交流的神经化学物质都是极其保守的。”

"Zebrafish have already been instrumental in other medical fields such as cardiovascular systems and oncology. Now they should be leveraged for sleep disorders, neurology and psychiatry at large" Mourrain argued.

“斑马鱼已经在心血管系统和肿瘤学等其他医学领域发挥了重要作用。现在它们应该被广泛应用于睡眠障碍、神经病学和精神病学。

Dr. Ivana Rosenzweig, a sleep physician and lecturer in the Neuroscience of Sleep at King's College London, who was not involved told Newsweek the results were "very exciting" and described it as a "significant, well-conducted study."

睡眠医生、伦敦国王学院(King’s College London)睡眠神经科学讲师伊万娜罗森茨威格(Ivana Rosenzweig)博士对《新闻周刊》(Newsweek)表示,研究结果“非常令人兴奋”,并将其描述为“一项意义重大、进行得很好的研究”。罗森茨威格博士并未参与此项研究。

"The study's observations take an important step further than any of the studies so far in this animal species.

“这项研究的观察比迄今为止对这种动物的任何研究都迈出了重要的一步。

"In recent years, there has been some debate whether sleep is truly required for functioning in all animal species, and this study, albeit indirectly, might help to demonstrate a strong evolutionary drive for important sleep rhythm signatures."

“近年来,人们一直在争论睡眠是否真的是所有动物物种都需要的功能,而这项研究,尽管是间接的,可能有助于证明对重要的睡眠节律特征的强大进化驱动力。”

However, Rosenzweig highlighted the results are preliminary and yet to be independently replicated.

不过,罗森茨威格强调说,研究结果只是初步的,还有待独立的印证。

"In addition, it would be a stretch to conclude that the similarity between neural signatures of slow wave sleep and dreaming sleep rhythms between zebrafish and humans also dictates their functional similarity, or that these sleep rhythms play a similar role in zebrafish and humans," she said.

她说:“此外,我们很难得出这样的结论:斑马鱼和人类慢波睡眠的神经特征和做梦时的睡眠节奏之间的相似性也决定了它们的功能相似性,或者这些睡眠节奏在斑马鱼和人类身上发挥着类似的作用。”

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