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有网瘾?研究发现行为疗法可以改善这个问题。

Addicted to the internet? Behavioral therapy could work, researchers find
有网瘾?研究发现行为疗法可以改善这个问题。
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2019-08-06 13:07
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有网瘾?研究发现行为疗法可以改善这个问题。

(CNN)Many people spend hours on the internet every week -- but some people can't pull away.

(CNN)人们每周花费很多时间来上网,但是有些人无法摆脱这个情况。

For individuals with internet addiction, there's a type of short-term therapy that can be an effective treatment, according to a small study published Wednesday in medical journal JAMA Psychiatry.

根据JAMA神经病医学杂志周三的发表的一项研究表明,有一种短期疗法对于那些有网瘾的人非常有效。

Researchers found that 69.4% of men with internet addiction entered remission if they received short-term cognitive behavioral therapy, compared to 23.9% of men who entered remission while being on a waitlist to receive therapy.

研究表明,69.4%的网瘾者经过短期行为认知疗法可以缓解,而在候补名单里等待治疗的人只有23.9%可以缓解。

People in remission were 10 times more likely to be part of the short-term cognitive behavioral therapy group than the waitlist control group.

通过参加短期认知行为治疗而得到缓解的人群是那些在候补名单的十倍。

"This indicates a strong treatment effect for subjects suffering from internet addiction or gaming disorder," said Klaus Wölfling, lead author of the study, in a podcast for JAMA Psychiatry. Wölfling is a researcher in the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy at the University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz in Germany.

沃福林是德国美因茨约翰内斯古登堡大学中心医学院身心医学与行为疗法学院的研究人,也是这个实验的第一作者,他在JAMA精神病院的博客上说道:“实验表明这是一种对于治疗网瘾和游戏成瘾有极大效果的疗法。”

Glued to our screens, and trying to get unstuck

盯着屏幕,然后试着将视线挣脱

Internet addiction, according to the researchers, is excessive use of the internet that negatively affects family, social, work and other aspects of life.

根据研究调查,网瘾是过度使用网络造成的副作用,从而影响我们的家庭、社交、工作以及其他生活。

Last year, the World Health Organization recognized internet gaming disorder as a mental health condition. The criteria for gaming disorder in WHO's International Classification of Diseases includes at least 12 months of recurrent patterns of gaming, loss of control, and continued behavior even after causing negative consequences and distress in other aspects of life.

世界卫生组织在去年将游戏成瘾归为一种精神健康疾病。游戏成瘾症在WHO国际疾病分类的定义包括:一年以上复发性、不可控性的游戏行为,并且后期行为带来了负面结果并危害了生活的其他方面。

For this study, researchers used a broader definition of internet addiction, to include patients who were addicted to gaming, social networks, pornography, online surfing or general internet use. The prevalence of internet addiction is estimated to be 6% worldwide.

在此实验,研究者使用了网瘾的广义定义,包括对游戏、社交软件、色青文学、网页浏览以及一般网络应用的上瘾。全球大约6%的网瘾是永久性的。

15 weeks of therapy

治疗时间为15周

The study looked at 143 men between the ages of 17 and 55 across four outpatient clinics in Germany and Austria, who met criteria for internet addiction based on scores from the Assessment of Internet and Computer Game Addiction, a standardized survey used in the field.

实验在德国和美国的四个门诊考察了143名年龄在17到55岁的患者,基于实验运用标准的网络与游戏成瘾量表的评分,这些患者都满足网瘾的定义。

It is based on 14 criteria that include frequency of internet activity, withdrawal symptoms, preoccupation with the internet and a loss of interest in other life activities. Internet addiction was defined as a score greater than 13, while remission was defined as a score of less than 7.

量表在14个标准的基础上将13分以上定义为有网瘾,7分以下为缓解 。其中14个标准包括上网的频率、脱瘾症状、沉浸式上网以及对生活其他活动失去兴趣。

The short-term cognitive behavioral therapy consisted of 15 weeks of group and individual sessions. The program was divided into three phases: education about the addiction, psychotherapeutic intervention -- such as showing healthy use of the internet -- and "focus on relapse prevention techniques and transition into everyday life," according to Wölfling.

根据沃福林所说,短期认知行为疗法包括15周的小组以及个人训练。这个项目分为了三个部分:成瘾的教育、心理疗法的干预(比如演示正确的网络使用),以及预防复发的技术和将其转移到日常生活中去。

Why I'm not quitting Facebook yet

为什么我一直戒不了Facebook

The people who were in the waitlist control group did ultimately receive the cognitive behavioral therapy, but after a 15 week delay to allow the study to be completed.

那些在候补名单的人群最终也会接受治疗,但是为了保证实验的完整,他们的治疗会推迟15周。

The study assessed only men because they are the predominant patients for internet addiction in the clinics, according to Wölfling. For behavioral addiction generally, men "represent 90% of patients treated or diagnosed in outpatient clinics," the researchers wrote.

沃福林说,这个实验对象仅针对于男人 ,因为男人是门诊里网瘾的主要患者。研究报道,对于门诊治疗、诊断一般行为上瘾来说,男人占了90%。

Patients were assessed at the start of treatment, mid-treatment and post-treatment at four months.

患者将在四个月内进行在治疗前、治疗中以及治疗后的评估。

Those in the short-term cognitive therapy group also had a follow-up assessment after six months. Researchers looked at self-reports of internet addiction behaviors and symptoms.

短期认知行为疗法在六个月后还有一次后续的评估。研究者主要是考察患者自述的网瘾行为和症状。

At the end of treatment, patients in the therapy group showed lower self-reported addiction symptoms such as withdrawal, preoccupation and time spent online, and better social, work and day-to-day functioning.

治疗结束时,实验组的病人自述自己的网瘾症状有所减轻,比如对于上网的时间和沉浸的脱瘾,社交能力、工作和日常生活能力的提高。

Patients showed lower rates of depression overall, without significant differences between the two groups. A small number of people became more depressed and had to be transferred to an inpatient facility, the researchers noted.

患者的抑郁率大致上也有所降低,两组的差别非常明显。研究报道一小部分人群变得越来越抑郁,最终只得住进治疗。

Boot camp for the Internet-addicted

This was the first randomized, clinical trial across multiple clinics that looked at the treatment for internet addiction, but the study had several limitations.

这是一个第一随机性、跨多个诊所来考查网瘾治疗的临床试验,但是实验也有很多局限性。

The small sample size could have "overestimated" the effect of short-term therapy, the researchers wrote.

实验写道,实验样本过小会“高估”短期疗法的有效性。

Also, the study was limited to men and based on information patients reported on their own condition. Some patients dropped out, with 100 patients completing the study as scheduled.

同时,这个实验局限于男人,而且是基于患者对于自身情况的自述。有一些患者中途退出,只有100名患者按计划完成了实验。

Future randomized controlled trials should have better patient retention, include women and be longer in duration, according to Wölfling.

沃福林说,未来的随即对照试验应该具有更高的的患者保留率,并且包括女人、延长治疗过程。

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来自CNN健康周报

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每周四CNN周报

"Patients might profit even further if the treatment phase would be prolonged," he said in the JAMA Psychiatry podcast.

他在JAMA精神博客上写道,如果病人治疗时间延长,他们未来便收益更多。

"Understanding of the person and history and the development of the pathologic behavior or disorder may be more important for the patient to learn about their own history and own life's development."

对于病人来说,了解人与历史以及病理行为或障碍的发展史,更重要的是了解他们自己的过去和自己的生活发展。

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