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山葵和大蒜是否可以缓解感冒?

will horseradish and garlic really ease a cold?
山葵和大蒜是否可以缓解感冒?
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2019-08-18 10:58
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山葵和大蒜是否可以缓解感冒?

Some of us may have heard that horseradish and garlic supplements help ease cold and flu. Blooms High Strength Horseradish and Garlic Complex claims it has

有些人可能听说过山葵和大蒜有助于流感感冒。大量的高辣度山葵和大蒜声称它有

a soothing antimicrobial action that helps fight off the bugs that can cause colds and flu and provides symptomatic relief from upper respiratory tract infections.

舒缓抗病毒的功效,帮助抵御外界引起感冒或流感的脏东西、坚强上呼吸道感染后的症状。

Others, such as those promoted by Swisse and Blackmores, claim to be “traditionally used in Western Herbal Medicine to provide symptomatic relief of sinusitis, hay fever and upper respiratory tract infections”. And the Swisse and Blackmores products (and many others) add additional ingredients, commonly vitamin C, which is claimed to be beneficial for “immune health”.

其他的,如瑞士和Blackmores提倡的,声称"传统上在西药中用于减轻鼻窦炎、花粉热和上呼吸道感染的症状"。瑞士和黑麦产品(其他产品)添加了额外的成分,通常是维生素c,(VC)被认为有利于“免疫健康”。                                                                                                

There are two categories of “evidence” allowed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) to validate indications or claims made for complementary medicines: scientific or traditional.

治疗品管理局(TGA)有两种许可类型“证据”来验证补充药物的处方和说明:科学的或传统的。

Scientific evidence is based on the scientific literature, such as trials in humans. Traditional evidence is based on theories outside modern conventional medicine, such as Western herbal medicine, traditional Chinese medicine and homeopathy.

科学性证依据建立在科学文献的基础上,如人体内的线索。传统依据建立在现代循证医学之外的理论,如西方草药学、中医和顺势疗法。

阅读更多:科学还是谎言:姜黄真的能缩小肿瘤、缓解疼痛、杀死细菌吗?

So, what does the research say?

所以 ,研究是怎么说的?

A search of the medical journal database PubMed failed to find any clinical trials on the combination of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) and garlic (Allium sativum), with or without vitamin C. Nor were any clinical trials found on horseradish alone.

医学检索数据库PubMed没有找到任何关于山葵和大蒜的是否含有维生素C的临床证明。单指山葵的临床证明也没有找到。

The authors of a 2014 Cochrane review concluded there was insufficient clinical trial evidence supporting garlic in preventing or treating the common cold. A single 2001 trial (from the Garlic Centre in the UK) suggested garlic may prevent the common cold, but more studies were needed to validate this finding. Claims of effectiveness appear to rely largely on poor-quality evidence.

2014年Cochrane评论的作者指出关于支撑大蒜可以预防或治疗普通感冒的临床依据是不充足的。2001年的一次试验(来自英国的大蒜中心)表明大蒜可以预防普通感冒,但是还需要更多的研究来证实这一发现。关于有效性的似乎在很大程度上依赖于质量优劣性。

A 2013 Cochrane systematic review explored whether taking vitamin C (0.2g a day or more) reduced the incidence, duration or severity of the common cold. The 29 trial comparisons involving 11,306 participants found taking vitamin C regularly failed to reduce the incidence of colds in the general population.

一项2013年的cochrane系统回顾探讨了服用维生素c(每天0.2克或更多)是否降低了普通感冒的发病率、持续时间或严重程度。这个实验包括了11306的受试者和29个对照组,发现规律服用维生素C不能降低普通人群感冒的发生率。

Supplements can claim they’re a traditional medicine, meaning they don’t have to prove they’re effective. Screenshot, Author provided

作者补充道,补充成分宣称它们是一种传统药物,也就是说它们不必证明本身是有效的。

Regular supplementation had a modest effect in reducing the duration of common cold symptoms by a few hours. The practical relevance of this finding is uncertain. The authors felt this level of benefit did not justify long-term supplementation. Finally, taking vitamin C at the onset of cold symptoms was not effective.

补充成分的规律服用有强力的证据证明可以减少感冒的几小时的患病时间。这一发现的实际相关性是不确定的。作者认为,这种水平的效益并不能作为长期补充的理由。最后,在出现感冒症状时服用维生素c是无效的。

Vitamin C deficiency can impair immune function, but this is uncommon in Australia and best prevented by eating fruit and vegetables.

维生素c缺乏会损害免疫功能,但这在澳大利亚并不常见,最好通过食用水果和蔬菜来预防。

阅读更多:周一的医学神话:维生素c可以预防感冒。

The TGA accepts a traditional indication if that use has been recorded in internationally recognised traditional sources for a period of use that exceeds three generations (75 years). Traditional indications or claims don’t mean a product actually works – that requires scientific evidence.

传统疗法的使用时间超过三代(75年),TGA才会接受。传统的暗示或说法并不意味着产品真的有效——这需要科学的证据。

What’s the verdict?

结论是什么?

Products such as Blooms High Strength Horseradish & Garlic Complex claim they fight off bugs, but those claims that lack scientific validation. This breaches many provisions of the Therapeutic Goods Advertising Code 2015.

某些产品,如百花辣根和大蒜,声称可以抵御细菌,但缺乏科学验证。这违反了《2015年医疗产品广告守则》的许多规定。

Products such as Swisse Ultiboost High Strength Horseradish + Garlic + Vitamin C, claiming horseradish and garlic have been “traditionally used in Western Herbal Medicine”, have correctly invoked the TGA’s “traditional paradigm”. But it’s important to remember this doesn’t mean these products work.

一些产品,如瑞士百得百得(Swisse)高强辣根+大蒜+维生素c,声称辣根和大蒜“在传统西方草药中使用”,正确地引用了TGA的“传统范例”。但重要的是这并不意味着产品就能成功。

What’s the implication?

揭示了什么

Recently, more and more purveyors of complementary medicine have been making “traditional” claims for their products.

最近,越来越多的补充药品供应商对他们的产品添加了“传统(疗法)”的作用。

If consumers are to make an informed choice about medicines claiming traditional use, a mandatory statement is required on the label and on all promotion explaining what this means. It should be explained to consumers the “tradition” is not in accordance with modern medical knowledge, and there is no scientific evidence the product works.

如果消费者要对声称传统用途的药品作出知情选择,就必须在标签和所有宣传上作出强制性声明,解释这意味着什么。应该向消费者解释,“传统”不符合现代医学知识,也没有科学的证据证明产品的工作。

Without such a disclaimer, consumers will be misled and the TGA will be seen to be endorsing pseudoscience. But to date, industry, the TGA and government have refused to take on-board such proposals.

如果没有这样的免责声明,消费者将会被误导,TGA将会被视为支持伪科学。但到目前为止,业界、TGA和政府都拒绝采纳这些建议。

阅读更多:有种新的标签(技术)可能有助于将小麦从谷壳中分离出来。

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