Creating A Secure, Intelligent Electric Grid Network
创建安全智能电网
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2019-07-11 19:02
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The United States electric grid is comprised of multiple systems and power plants generating electricity, over 200,000 miles of high-voltage transmission lines and 5.5 million miles of local distribution lines that connect thousands of energy generation plants to our homes and businesses across the country. For decades, utilities have owned and operated their own private, licensed, wireless networks and private land mobile radio systems (PLMR) to offer reliable communications to centralized generation stations, substations, motor operated switches, and more on the electric grid, creating a high level of reliability.

美国电网由多个发电系统和发电厂组成,超过200,000英里的高压输电线路和550万英里的本地配电线路,将数千个发电厂连接到全国各地的家庭和企业。几十年来,公用事业公司拥有并运营着自己的私有,许可,无线网络和私人陆地移动无线电系统(PLMR),以便为集中发电站,变电站,电动机开关等提供可靠的通信,从而创造出高可靠性水平。

However, the energy world is changing rapidly from centralized power (e.g. large coal and gas fired plans) to distributed energy resources (DERs) like rooftop solar and wind. This shift has given us both the opportunity and corresponding need to improve the efficiency and reliability of our data communications networks. New robust, private licensed wireless networks will be needed to monitor and control grid operations ranging from the most dense to remote locations.

然而,能源世界正在迅速从集中供电(例如大型煤和燃气计划)转变为分布式能源资源(DER),如屋顶太阳能和风能。这种转变为我们提供了提高数据通信网络效率和可靠性的机会和相应需求。将需要新的强大的私有许可无线网络来监视和控制从最密集到远程位置的网格操作。

At my company, we refer to the incorporation of these new monitoring and control devices at scale as the Mission Critical Internet of Things. These new devices are changing all aspects of grid planning and operations, creating new network and device requirements for interoperability, cybersecurity, and the management of big data pulled from MC-IoT devices in the field.

在我的公司,我们将这些新的监控和控制设备大规模整合为关键任务物联网。这些新设备正在改变网格规划和运营的各个方面。为互操作性、网络安全以及从现场MC-IoT设备提取的大数据管理创建新的网络和设备要求。

Fortifying our grid with advanced communications

通过先进的通信加强我们的网格

Most utility networks, going back over 60 years, were designed to use a serial protocol known as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. Given the limited bandwidth of wired telecommunications networks, the protocol was designed to communicate a lot of information in an efficient way. However, with the evolution of smart grids and DERs, there is a radical increase in the number of devices that need to be deployed, increasing the capacity needs of the network.

大多数公用事业网络从60多年前,旨在使用称为监督控制和数据采集的串行协议。鉴于有线电信网络的带宽有限,该协议旨在以有效的方式传递大量信息。然而,随着智能电网和DER的发展,需要部署的设备数量急剧增加,从而增加了网络的容量需求。

Existing systems now have to take into account added security and real-time control over these networks that did not exist at the time the original systems were developed. A recently disclosed denial of service (DoS) attack at an electric utility in the Western U.S. gave us a preview of the vulnerability of these networks. This was the first reported digital attack known to have impacted electrical grid operations in the United States and showed that the potential for disruption of mission critical networks is a legitimate concern. A December 2015 cyberattack on three Ukrainian distribution utilities is the first known global attempt to cause a blackout.

现有系统现在必须考虑在原始系统开发时不存在的对这些网络的增加的安全性和实时控制。 最近在美国西部的一家电力公司被直接拒绝服务(DoS)攻击让我们预览了这些网络的漏洞。这是第一次报告的数字攻击已知影响了美国的电网运营,并表明破坏关键任务网络的可能性是一个合理的问题。 2015年12月对三家乌克兰分销公用事业公司的网络攻击是第一次引发停电的全球尝试。

Indian electric grid

U.S. electric grids are vulnerable to terrorist attacks, research groups say. Photo: Reuters 

研究机构称,美国电网容易遭受恐怖袭击。照片:路透社

New approaches to grid intelligence

网格智能的新方法

Using a commercial wired or wireless data network for mission-critical services may seem attractive, but this relinquishes most key network decisions to the commercial network provider, thus making it impossible to design application specific security, quality and reliability measures. In the example of the DoS attack, all devices attack a single target at the same time, normally with the goal of producing so much traffic that bandwidth is completely saturated, so that valid customer traffic doesn't get through. It's much more difficult to defend yourself against these multi-device attacks due to the volume of traffic involved and the amount of accessibility for any agent to meddle with public networks. Commercial networks do not typically guarantee service levels, which is often critical for utility systems.

将商业有线或无线数据网络用于关键任务服务可能看起来很有吸引力,但这会将大多数关键网络决策放弃到商业网络提供商,因此无法设计特定于应用的安全性,质量和可靠性措施。在DoS攻击的示例中,所有设备同时攻击单个目标,通常目标是产生如此多的流量以使带宽完全饱和,从而使有效的客户流量无法通过。由于涉及的流量大小以及任何代理可以干扰公共网络的可访问性,因此要防御这些多设备攻击要困难得多。商业网络通常不保证服务水平,这通常对公用事业系统至关重要。

Having the ability to maintain control over the network has been one of the key concerns of mission critical industries. The use of private, licensed wireless networks is emerging as the ideal solution to provide the connectivity and coverage that is needed. These private networks operate in FCC-protected licensed spectrum which are dedicated solely to mission critical operations, making them far more secure than commercial offerings.

能够保持对网络的控制一直是关键任务行业关注的重点之一。使用私有的许可无线网络正在成为提供所需连接和覆盖的理想解决方案。这些专用网络在受FCC保护的许可频谱中运行,专门用于关键任务操作,使其比商业产品更安全。

Standards secure MC-IoT in the grid

在网格中保护标准mc-iot

In 2017, a promising solution for mission-critical data communications was introduced when the IEEE 802.16s wireless standard was ratified and published by the IEEE. The standard was a grassroots endeavor launched by electric utilities and other industries which were looking for a standard technology that could be used in narrower licensed channels accessible to industrial users. The standard was designed from the ground up for mission critical remote monitoring and control applications, not the consumer market.

2017年,当IEEE 802.16s无线标准由IEEE批准和发布时,引入了一种有前途的关键任务数据通信解决方案。该标准是由电力公司和其他行业发起的基层努力,这些行业正在寻找可用于工业用户可访问的较窄许可渠道的标准技术。该标准从头开始设计用于关键任务远程监控和控制应用,而非消费者市场。

With more and more data being required to be transmitted from field devices, the incorporation of intelligence and processing for utility networks at the edge will help reduce the amount of data that has to be transmitted back to the central operations center. Additionally, security applications can be executed at the edge, thereby preventing any malicious data or unauthorized device connecting to the network.

随着越来越多的数据需要从现场设备传输,在边缘处将公用事业网络的智能和处理结合起来将有助于减少必须传输回中央运营中心的数据量。另外,安全应用程序可以在边缘执行,从而防止任何恶意数据或未经授权的设备连接到网络。

These standards coupled with the emerging use of private, wireless networks enable the mission critical industries to implement real-time monitoring and control, effectively provide greater security for and reliability of the electric grid.

这些标准与私有无线网络的新兴使用相结合,使关键任务行业能够实现实时监控,有效地为电网提供更高的安全性和可靠性。

Martin Paget is vice president of industrial solutions at Ondas Networks, a wireless networking company.

Martin Paget是无线网络公司Ondas Networks的工业解决方案副总裁。

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